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14 52913 can infants performance on some of these

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Unformatted text preview: ps in infancy.   The evidence reveals both abilities and deficits, and the challenge is for theorists to account for both competence and incompetence in infants’ thinking. 14 5/29/13   Can infants’ performance on some of these tasks tell us something about their later development? Predicting cognitive abilities Rose, S. A., & Feldman, J. F. (1995). Prediction of IQ and specific cognitive abilities at 11 years from infancy measures.   Developmental Psychology, 31(4), 685-696.     (Rose and Feldman, 1995) Change over time   Classic longitudinal studies found little relation between infant cognitive performance and later childhood intelligence -however, recent studies suggest more stability over time (Rose and Feldman, 1995) 15 5/29/13 Measures   Measures of infant mental functioning -visual recognition memory -->ability to recognize something they have seen before -habituation -->time to learn or encode features -cross-modal transfer -->ability to recognize an object in another modality -object permanence -->memory for the existence of an object after it has disappeared (Rose and Feldman, 1995) Tests   Test basic cognitive abilities that characterize later intelligence -speed of encoding -->habituation -storage and retrieval of info -->familiarization and habituation response to novelt -discrimination -recognition (Rose and Feldman, 1995) Limitations   To understand developmental continuities     Must clearly pinpoint the process tapped by the infant measure Previous studies were often limited by follow-up only to toddler years -small sample sizes -only a single outcome measured (Rose and Feldman, 1995) 16 5/29/13 Present Study   Participants   90 children From low SES Full terms were considered “at risk” Preterms were considered “double hazard”   Follow-up testing at 11 years of age       -->at risk both biologically and socially -->already tested at 7mos, 1 year, and 5 years (Rose and Feldman, 1995) 7 months   Visual recognition memory -familiarize with 1 picture -show a new pic and a novel one; see where infants look more   Attention measured indirectly -how long it took infants to reach familiarization criterion (Rose and Feldman, 1995) One Year   Visual recognition memory   Cross-modal transfer   Tactual recognition memory -familiarization period was tactile -familiarization-darkness: infants were allowed to manipulate 4 identical objects on a tray for a min -tesst-darkness: 4 identical 'new' objects were added to the tray and infants were allowed to manipulate all 8 for 2 mins -novelty: amount of time spent exploring new object (Rose and Feldman, 1995) 17 5/29/13 11 years   Wechsler intelligence scales for children   Specific Cognitive Abilities -verbal and performance IQ scores -memory -perceptual speed -spatial ability 0verbal ability (Rose and Feldman, 1995) Results   Two of the infancy measures predicted IQ at 11 years   Many infancy measures were selectively related to cognitive outcomes at 11 years -7mos visual recognition memory and 1 year yr tactile cross modal transfer -differences in IQ between preterms and full terms -about 10pts and remained constant (Rose and Feldman, 1995) Conclusions   Relatedness between the infancy and 11 year studies -processing speed: acounted for msot of the relatedness between the infancy and 11 year studies -important component of indvl differences -shows more continuity thru childhood (Rose and Feldman, 1995) 18...
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