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Classical conditioning a form of learning that

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Unformatted text preview: ive to the regularity with which one stimulus follows another D. Classical Conditioning   A form of learning that consists of associating an initially neutral stimulus with a stimulus that always evokes a reflexive response   Plays a role in infants’ everyday learning about the relations between environmental events that have relevance for them it is thought that many emotional responses are initially learned through classical conditioning, as demonstrated by Little Albert D. Classical Conditioning   Classical conditioning involves an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that reliably elicits a reflexive, unlearned response – an unconditioned response (UCR).   Learning or conditioning can occur if an initially neutral stimulus, the conditioned stimulus (CS), repeatedly occurs just before the unconditioned stimulus.   Gradually, the originally reflexive response – the learned or conditioned response (CR) – becomes paired with the initially neutral stimulus. 10 5/29/13 E. Instrumental Conditional   Also called operant conditioning   Involves learning the relation between one’s own behavior and the consequences that result   Most instrumental conditioning research with infants involves positive reinforcement   There is a contingency relation between the infant’s behavior and the reward. Contingency Relation Young infants learned within minutes that kicking their leg would cause the mobile to move in an interesting way. F. Observational Learning   Infants as young as 6 to 9 months of age imitate some of the novel actions they have witnessed.   The ability to imitate the behavior of others appears to be present early in life, although in an extremely limited form. for ex: newborns will stick out their tongue after watching an adult model repeatedly perform this action   In choosing to imitate a model, infants appear to pay attention to the reason for the person’s behavior. infants attempt to reporduce the behavior of other people, nut not of inanimate objects   By 15 months of age, infants can imitate actions they have seen an adult perform on television. imitating intentions: -when 18mos see a person apparently try, but fail, to pull the ends off a dumbbell, they imitate pulling the ends offthe action the person intended to do not what the person actually did -they dont imitate a mechanical device at all 11 5/29/13 III. Cognition A. Object Knowledge B. Physical Knowledge C. Social Knowledge Cognitive Abilities   Research conducted over the past two decades has established that infants’ cognitive abilities are much more impressive than previously believed. -knowledge -thought -reasoning -are much more impressive than previously believed -nature or nurture is a debate Theorists     Core-knowledge theorists maintain that infants are born with some knowledge about the physical world Some theorists emphasize       specialized learning mechanisms general learning mechanisms that enable infants to acquire knowledge rapidly and efficiently in some domains (ex lang) that gradually stnreghtne infants' mental representations of the world Still other theorists contend that perceptual-motor p...
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