Anatomy and Physiology I Exam 3 Review.docx - Anatomy and...

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Anatomy and Physiology I Exam 3 ReviewNervous SystemNervous system function1) Sensory input- gathered information from inside and outside the body2) Integration center (CNS)-integrates information, brain and spinal cord decide how to respond3) Motor output (response)- activates the effector organs-PNS all around the bodyDivisions of the Nervous System1) CNS-interprets sensory input and control center dictates motor output2) PNS-communication with spinal cord, brain, and peripheral nervesDivisions of PNSSensory division(afferent)pain receptorsMotor division(efferent)response(a) Somaticvoluntary (skeletal muscles)(b) Autonomicinvoluntary(i) Sympatheticfight or flight(ii) Parasympatheticrest and digest*origins of the nervous system are similar to the rise of the integumentary systemNeuron AnatomyCell body-produces proteins and enzymes-well developed nissl bodies which-rough ER- proteins and phospholipids are manufactured for membrane-golgi apparatus- modifies and packages proteins to be exportedMicrotubules (shape), neurofibrils, neurofilament (structural support)Dendrites-receives input from another neuron-conducts a graded potential that is sent to the somaAxon-conducts the graded potential and sends out at output-graded potential must reach axon hillock for an outputAxon terminal-secretory portion, neurotransmitters are releasedMyelin sheath-protein sheath on an axon that provides a faster action potentialTransport along the AxonAnterograde-transports material towards the axon and away-kinase is the motor proteinRetrograde-transports material towards the cell body and is destroyed-dynein is the motor proteinNeural LocationCNS-tracts- collection of axons-nuclei- clusters of somaPNS-nerves- collection of axons-ganglia- clusters of soma
Cells of Nervous SystemNeurons/nerves1) Sensory neuron (afferent)-collects information of sensation-sends it to spinal cord-cell body outside of CNS, dendrite is inside2) Motor neuron (efferent)-tells organelles what to do-cell body is inside, axon is in PNS3) Interneurons-cell body, axon, dendrites-connects motor and sensory neurons-common in spinal cordNeurogliaPNS1) Schwann cells-forms myelin sheath, separated2) Satellite cells-surrounds cell body and monitors transportationCNS1) Astrocytes-anchors to blood supply for nutrients (K+)-acquires glucose from capillaries-recycles neurotransmitters2) Microglial cells-phagocytes monitor cells health3) Ependymal cells-Blood brain barrier (BBB) functionality-found in ventricles of brain and spinal cord4) Oligodendrocyte-secretes myelin continuously, non-seperatedMembrane Potentials-Voltage across the membrane through membrane ion channelsLeakage (non-gated channels)K and Na go in and out of the cell, always openGated Channels1) Chemically gatedcorrect neurotransmitter opens gate2) Voltage gatedchange in membrane potential opens channel3) Mechanically gatedopen in response to physical deformation of channelEx/ RyanodineResting Membrane Potential(-70mV-polarized)

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Term
Spring
Professor
McCormick,SusanL
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