Together these examples show that an understanding of

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Unformatted text preview: nd Rectal Cancer Prognostic Markers If all cancer is different, how can we learn something by studying a cancer genome? Won’t each genome be different? •  Cancer is a complex diseases. •  Even two individuals with the same diagnosis may have –  different symptoms –  different responses to treatments –  different long ­term clinical outcomes •  This is because, even though two people may have the same diagnosis, their tumors do not have all of the same underlying genomic changes. What can genomics do? •  CML – BCR/ABL fusion can be targeted by a drug, Gleevec™, which can have positive impact in these patients. •  HER2 positive tumors are treated with Herceptin™ is another product to come from cancer genomics research. –  This drug can effectively treat a signiUicant number of breast cancer patients whose tumors produce too much of a protein called HER ­2. •  Data from TCGA on kidney cancer identiUied genetic changes that might explain •  why some patients with recurring tumors are resistant to treatment with the standard drug used to treat the disease. •  Together these examples show that an understanding of different cancer genomes can provide clues that lead to improvements in cancer care. Designing targeted therapies that will only kill cancerous cells Translocation: BCR ­ABL fusion  ­ Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia The Philadelphia Chromosome A Translocation: BCR ­ABL fusion Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia •  The Philadelphia chromosome is a translocation in which parts of two chromosomes, 9 and 22, swap places. •  The result is a BCR ­ABL fusion gene that turns out to cause the cancer •  The drug Gleevec was designed to speciUically target and inhibit this fusion prot...
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