Lecture-8-RNA-Transcription regulation -Eukaryotic

Lecture-8-RNA-Transcription regulation-Eukaryotic

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Unformatted text preview: s •  Enhancers(Activators) •  Silencers(Inhibitors) 13 EukaryoticTranscriptionRegulation Promoterproximalelements 14 EukaryoticTranscriptionRegulation EnhancersandSilencers •  Sensesandrespondstoextra ­‑cellularandintra ­‑ cellularsignals •  transmitssignaltogenes •  Distanceindependent –  1Kb ­‑50Kbawayfromtranscriptionstartsite. •  Orientationindependent.Thereforecanbelocated on –  5 side –  3 side –  evenwithinintrons. 15 TheCentralDogma DNA ­‑to ­‑RNA ­‑to ­‑protein ThefirststepisthetransferofinformationfromDNAtoRNA Transcription RNAPolymeraseII TATA ­‑Bindingfactors Findingpromotersites RecruitsRNAPolII EukaryoticTranscriptionRegulation EnhancersandSilencers 22 EukaryoticGeneRegulation 1.  Controls   Howmuch   When–timeduringdevelopment   Where–tissue/celltype 2.  Levels   RNA   Attranscriptioninitiation–mostcommon   Duringsplicingorprocessing   Post ­‑transcriptionalstability–common ­‑ miRNA ­‑mediated   Protein •  Translationinitiation/elongation •  proteinstability–ubiquitinsystem •  proteinmodification 23 TranscriptionFactors •  Highlyconservedduringevolution. •  Versatile •  Canassumeawidespectrumofshapesand chargedsurfaces –  MolecularMimicry •  AbletofitsnuglyintotheDNAdouble helix. 24 TranscriptionFactors •  ArchitecturalDNAbindingandbendingenzymes. •  Twomodules –  DNAbindingdomain(usuallyN ­‑terminal) –  Bindscis ­‑actingelementinpromoter. –  Fourtypes •  Helixturnhelixdomain •  Helixloophelixdomain •  Zincfingerdomain •  Leucinezipperdomain –  Transcriptionalactivation/repressiondomain(usuallyC ­‑ terminal) •  Interactswithotherproteins •  Carryoutactivationorrepression. 25 EukaryoticTranscriptionRegulation 1.  Problem •  Developmentallycomplexorganismsrequirethat transcriptionlevelsareregulatedoverawiderange –  –  •  Verylowtoveryhigh Complexorganismsareexquisitelysensitivetogenedosage Specificbiologicalfunctionaredividedandlimitedto specificorgans 2.  Solution •  Basaltranscripti...
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This document was uploaded on 01/18/2014.

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