Lecture-8-RNA-Transcription regulation -Eukaryotic

Posttranslationalmodicationofprotein

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Unformatted text preview: omorethan1RNApolymerase. 2.  De ­‑coupledtranscriptionandtranslation. 3.  RNAtranscription,processing,splicing,stability. 4.  Proteintranslation,modification,stability. 5.  Increasedrepertoireofcis ­‑actingelementsandtrans ­‑acting factorsthroughcombinatorialinteractions. 6.  Chromatinre ­‑modeling. 9 StrategiesUsed 1.  RNApolymerases –  Prokaryotes–RNApolymeraseholoenzyme –  Eukaryotes– •  •  •  2.  RNAprocessing –  –  3.  RNApolI–rRNA(excluding5SRNA) RNApolII–mRNA RNApolIII–tRNA,snRNA,5SRNA Prokaryotes–PrimaryRNAtranscriptistranslatedwhich beingmade Eukaryotes–Primarytranscriptundergoesextensive processing. •  5 (CAP)and3 (polyA)endmodification •  Intronsplicing •  mRNAissynthesizedbyRNApolIIwhichislargeand complexinordertoco ­‑ordinateprocessingeventsand regulation. PostTranslationalmodificationofprotein –  –  Receptor/Ligandinteractions Proteinphosphorylationandde ­‑phosphorylation 10 TranscriptionRegulation: •  Theenormousdiversityofgeneexpressionpacernsin eukaryotesarecreatedby •  thefollowingpropertiesofregulatoryelements •  Modularity •  Cooperativity •  Combinatorialinteractions 11 TranscriptionRegulation Eukaryotes •  BasalTranscription –  RNApolymeraseII+promoter •  canonlycatalyzetranscriptionata verylow(BASAL)level. •  ActivatedTranscription –  Transcriptionfactors+cis ­‑acting elements •  increasetranscriptionrates considerably 12 EukaryoticTranscriptionRegulation Cis ­‑actingelements •  Promoter –  Intheimmediate5 end –  Veryclosetotheinitiationsite(~30bases) –  RNAPolIIbindingsite=TATAbox •  Promoterproximalelements –  ~100 ­‑200basesfrominitiationsite. –  Distanceandorientationdependent –  Shortrangeeffects –  examples •  GC ­‑richbox •  CCAATbox •  Promoterdistalelements –  Distanceandorientationindependent –  longrangeeffect...
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