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Unformatted text preview: ile of the well being drilled, including factors such as well depth, temperatures, and well pressures. Once the well is in production, hydrocarbons are extracted through a tubing string that is run down through the middle of the production casing string. During drilling, the rig crew pumps a fluid, called “drilling mud” or “mud” down the drill pipe and through the drill bit nozzles. Although the fluid is referred to as “mud,” it is actually a complex system comprised of components that are designed in light of, and tailored to, a variety of well conditions. The mud’s primary function is to assist drill crews in maintaining well control. Drilling mud exerts hydrostatic pressure in the drill pipe and annulus (the space between the drill pipe and the walls of the casing strings or open hole) that is equal to or greater than the pressures encountered in the wellbore, thereby keeping the well balanced and under control. Drilling mud also cools the drill bit and lifts cuttings to the surface as the mud is circ...
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