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3,070 8* 135
9 92 Air-cooled
L angley (model)
Lawrance J - l
Pratt & Whitney
W r i g h t 1 820
C ontinental A - 6 5
P ratt & W h i t n e y
Pratt & Whitney
W r i g h t 3350 3.2
4 25 d
D ropped to 12 h p after 1 min.
All liquid-cooled engines later than Curtiss D-12 are
All air-cooled engines later than Lawrence J - l , except
C ontinental, are supercharged. » Refers to year of first general use (except for Langley
e ngine). Where two dates are given, they refer to typical early
a nd late models of the same basic engine.
* M aximum rated, or takeoff power.
R adiator, cowling, and coolant arc not included in the
weight of liquid-cooled engines Cowling is not included for
air-cooled engines. 88 l atter two remain in air-transport service, as do also the Pratt & Whitney
R -1830 a nd Wright R -1820 (in the D C - 3 airplane). There are also some
P ratt & Whitney 9-cylinder Wasp and Wasp Jr. engines in service in
m edium-powered airplanes, especially in Canada, and a few remain in
service in the old Ford trimotors dating from about 1930. A few Pratt &
W hitney R-4360 28-cylinder engines also remain in service.
W here the piston engine continues to reign supreme is with the popular
light plane. Literally tens of thousands of air-cooled, horizontally opposed
piston engines manufactured by Continental, Lycoming, and Franklin
power American light planes; and they have their counterparts in lesser
q uantities in Europe. Although by no means as dramatic as the powerplants that count their horsepower in four digits, these modest prime movers
h ave enjoyed greater quantity production than any other type of aero
e ngine except those for model airplanes.
F igure 72 also includes a family tree for rocket, turbo-jet, and t urboprop engines. The history of these developments is so recent and so well
covered in the literature (particularly by Schlaifer and G ibbs-Smith) t hat
n o attempt will be made to cover it here. There could well be a paper as
long as this one, or even a whole volume, devoted to this important and
r evolutionary development in aircraft propulsion.
I t is interesting to review the contributions of the various nations in
t he field of aircraft propulsion. Table 2 summarizes this subject. It is
e vident that the United States and France have been the principal contributors to early engine development, while England has made significant
c ontributions in late piston and early turbine engines, and Germany was
t he first to fly rocket and jet engines, although German and British turbojet
d evelopment was concurrent.
If the art and science of aircraft propulsion develop as fast in the next
50 years as they have since the Wright brothers' initial flight, the following
p rophecy of Lester D. Gardner in Aviation (vol 1, no. 1, August 1916),
will be as meaningful today as it was then:
Now many of the most distinguished scientists in all countries are giving
aeronautics close and careful study. From the work of these men aeronautics wi...
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This document was uploaded on 01/19/2014.
- Winter '14
- The Land