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History of aicraft piston engines

History of aicraft piston engines - SMITHSONIAN ANNALS OF...

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SMITHSONIAN ANNALS OF FLIGHT AIRCRAFT PROPULSION C FAYETTE TAYLOR 0 *.». —•II "iP tfnm^t. "•SI 12 '! « Ifrfil K. ««• ••ar T T ' , ^ I f i %L~^» if' #s$j?M _ • * • H' K - 1 ~ mmP\ ^ *7 9 | * • r " . ZZZT "^ OOKfc IST A Review of the Evolution of Aircraft Piston Engines Volume 1, Number 4 (End of Volume) NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 0 / \ SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
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S M I T H S O N I A N I N S T I T U T I O N NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM
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SMITHSONIAN ANNALS OF FLIGHT VOLUME 1 . NUMBER 4 . (END OF VOLUME) AIRCRAFT PROPULSION A Review of the Evolution Aircraft Piston Engines C. FAYETTE TAYLOR Professor of Automotive Engineering Emeritus Massachusetts Institute of Technology SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS CITY OF WASHINGTON 1971
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Smithsonian Annals of Flight Numbers 1-4 constitute volume one of Smithsonian Annals of Flight. Subsequent numbers will not bear a volume designation, which has been dropped. The following earlier numbers of Smithsonian Annals of Flight are available from the Superintendent of Documents as indicated below: 1. The First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight and the Historic T-2 Airplane, by Louis S. Casey, 1964. 90 pages, 43 figures, appendix, bibliography. Price 60ff. 2. The First Airplane Diesel Engine: Packard Model DR-980 of 1928, by Robert B. Meyer. 1964. 48 pages, 37 figures, appendix, bibliography. Price 60^. 3. The Liberty Engine 1918-1942, by Philip S. Dickey. 1968. 110 pages, 20 figures, appendix, bibliography. Price 75jf. The following numbers are in press: 5. The Wright Brothers Engines and Their Design, by Leonard S. Hobbs. 6. Langley's Aero Engine of 1903, by Robert B. Meyer. 7. The Curtiss D-12 Aero Engine, by Hugo Byttebier. For sale by Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.75
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Contents Page FOREWORD vn ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vm EARLY ATTEMPTS AT PROPULSION 1 EARLY INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES 8 Wright Brothers' Engine 1903 9 Langley Engines 1900-1903 15 ENGINES 1903-1909 19 ENGINES 1910-1918 27 PISTON ENGINES AFTER 1918 35 Liquid-Cooled Engines 35 Air-Cooled Engines 41 Air Versus Liquid Cooling 53 UNCONVENTIONAL ENGINES 57 Barrel- or Revolver-Type Engine 57 Fairchild-Caminez Engine 57 Sleeve-Valve Engines 57 Diesel Aircraft Engines 59 Two-Cycle Gasoline Engines 60 Unconventional Cylinder Arrangements 62 RELATED TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 63 Valves and Valve Cooling 63 Fuels and Combustion 65 Altitude Performance and Superchargers 67 Vibration Control 73 Propellers 75 Reduction gears 78 Other Developments 79 Ignition Systems 79 Carburetion 81 Fuel Injection 81 Starting 81 Bearings and Lubrication 82 Engine Instruments 83
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SUMMARY OF PISTON-ENGINE DEVELOPMENT 85 Table 1—Engines of Historical Importance 88 Table 2—Credits, by Country, for Engine Developments . 90 FOOTNOTES 91 APPENDIX—The Rotary Radial Engine 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY 95 (Expanded and arranged by Dr. Richard K. Smith, from material furnished by C. Fayette Taylor) Bibliographies and Indexes 95 History and Technology of Aircraft and Flight 96 (Publications primarily concerned with aircraft devel- opment, but incidentally containing valuable material on aircraft propulsion, or with theory and technological
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