History of aicraft piston engines

In 1961 a license to build continental engines of

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Unformatted text preview: p engine used cast-iron L-head cylinders. It was t he forerunner of contemporary horizontal-opposed light-plane engines. L ater models use composite aluminum and steel cylinders similar to the J - 5 cylinder of figure 36e. Engines of this type built by Continental Motors C orporation and by others, including principally the Lycoming Division of Avco Corporation, have developed to a remarkable degree of reliability a nd performance. In 1961, a license to build Continental engines of this t ype was acquired by Rolls-Royce, a real compliment to the high quality of these small powerplants. A nother interesting category of air-cooled engines comprises those b uilt for installation in model airplanes. These are usually 1-cylinder 2-cycle engines of less than 1-in. b ore and stroke (fig. 49). Some are rated up to 1 h p at speeds of 15,000 rpm or more. Originating in the United States about 1930, these engines were produced in very large quantities between 1945 a nd 1950. I t is claimed that there were 180 manufacturers of model engines in the United States during that period, and their total production, in n umber of engines, p robably exceeded that of all other aircraft engines c ombined. The popularity of engine-powered model airplanes fell off about 50 F igure 4 8.—Continental A - 4 0 air-cooled horizontalopposed 4-cylinder engine, 1 9 3 1 ; 40 hp at 2 5 0 0 r p m , 1 45 lb. This engine was the f o r e r u n n e r of contemporary h orizontal-opposed light-plane engines. (Photo A50897) C F igure 4 9.—Model a irplane engine, S uper Cyclone (NASM 1 9 4 4 - 2 0 ) , about 1 9 5 0 ; a bout 1/10 hp at 10,000 r p m , 5 o unces. This typical single-cylinder, 2cycle, a ir-cooled model engine uses s pecial fuel with hot-wire ignition. (Photo A-36625) F igure 5 0.—Frontal c oolant radiator for Liberty engine on D eHavilland DH-4 (NASM 1 9 1 9 - 5 1 ) , 1918. This position f or the radiator required a l arge cooling surface and c ont r i b u t e d heavily to airplane d rag. (Photo A-9850-D). F igure 5 1.—Completely e xposed Lawrance J - l radial e ngine on Curtiss F 4-C1, a bout 1 924. Below, P artially exposed W right J-5 engine on Ryan NYP a irplane Spirit of St. Louis ( NASM 1928-21), after return f rom Europe, 1927. (Photos A-47190.A-1193-B). F igure 5 2.—Radial e ngine with N ACA-type cowling on Frank H awks' L ockheed Air Express, 1929. (Photo A-33428-E) 1950, b ut has revived during the past decade. During 1966 one manufacturer a lone produced a million model aero engines. Air Versus Liquid Cooling T he classic and often emotionally charged argument over the relative m erits of liquid and air cooling started with the early days of flying ( Antoinette vs. Gnome, for example) and persisted to the end of World W ar II, when the advent of jets and turbo props diverted attention elsewhere. As we have seen, water cooling was dominant through World War I, e xcept for the rotaries, which at its close were obsolescent. European m ilitary aviation remained generally committed to water cooling up to and t h...
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This document was uploaded on 01/19/2014.

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