1389639061_229__02Phonetics_S2%25252C3%25252C4Spring2014_C1

One sound more than one symbol spelling 2 same symbol

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Unformatted text preview: consider them separate sounds © A. Rimrott, 2013, Simon Fraser 8 University, and/or © T. Heift, © M. Taboada, © C. Burgess, SFU The Interna7onal Phone7c Alphabet (IPA) •  Objec7ves of IPA –  Transcribe all speech sounds in all languages –  Represent each sound of speech with a different symbol –  One sound = one symbol, one symbol = one sound •  English orthography does not conform to the true alphabe7c principle (one- sound = one- symbol) © A. Rimrott, 2013, Simon Fraser 9 University, and/or © T. Heift, © M. Taboada, © C. Burgess, SFU English: Not True Alphabe7c Principle •  Give examples where English diverges from true alphabe7c principle 1.  One sound, more than one symbol (= spelling) 2.  Same symbol, different sounds 3.  Silent [email protected] (one symbol, no sound) 4.  Missing [email protected] (one sound, no symbol) © A. Rimrott, 2013, Simon Fraser University, and/or © T. Heift, © M. Taboada, © C. Burgess, SFU Diacri7cs •  To avoid use of new symbols, diacri$cs ([email protected] marks) may be employed •  [email protected] mark in conjunc7on with a symbol to indicate the quality of the sound represented pan [æ̃] feel [ɫ] top [th] © A. Rimrott, 2013, Simon Fraser 11 University, and/or © T. Heift, © M. Taboada, © C. Burgess, SFU The Sound- Producing System •  Speech Organs (or vocal organs): those parts of the body used in speech produc7on •  Primary func7on of speech organs is biological –  We do not have unique speech organs (organs developed for speech only) © A. Rimrott, 2013, Simon Fraser 12 University, and/or © T. Heift, © M. Taboada, © C. Burgess, SFU Lungs •  Source of moving air •  Biological func7on –  To exchange CO2, oxygen •  Speech func7on –  To supply air for speech © A. Rimrott, 2013, Simon Fraser 13 University, and/or © T. Heift, © M. Taboada, © C. Burgess, SFU Lungs •  During speech produc7on short inspira7ons are followed by expira7ons whose length are keyed to the length of the [email protected] •  The air pressure needed to keep the speech mechanism func7oning steadily is maintained by –  Intercostals (muscles between ribs) –  Diaphragm (large sheet of muscle that separates chest from abdomen) © A. Rimrott, 2013, Simon Fraser 14 University, and/or © T. Heift, © M. Taboada, © C. Burgess, SFU Larynx: The Source of Sound •  Larynx (= voice box/Adam’s apple): a structure of car7lages and muscles situated atop the trachea •  Biological func7on –  Protects lungs by preven7ng food par7cl...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2014 for the course LING 220 taught by Professor Heift during the Spring '09 term at Simon Fraser.

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