EE1002 Notes Part1 - Contents 6 SubdivisionsofEE.6...

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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 1 Contents Overview of Electrical Engineering ............................................................................................................... 6 Subdivisions of EE: .................................................................................................................................... 6 SI units ....................................................................................................................................................... 8 Prefixes for units ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Fundamentals of Electric Circuits .................................................................................................................. 9 Learning Objectives ................................................................................................................................... 9 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................. 9 Charge ................................................................................................................................................... 9 Circuit .................................................................................................................................................... 9 Electric Current ................................................................................................................................... 10 Voltages ............................................................................................................................................... 12 Electric Power and Sign Convention ................................................................................................... 15 The passive sign convention ................................................................................................................... 15 Circuit Elements and their i v characteristics ......................................................................................... 16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law ...................................................................................................................... 16 Conductance ....................................................................................................................................... 17 Resistivity of common materials at room temperature ..................................................................... 18 Difference between resistor and resistance ....................................................................................... 18 Resistor color code .............................................................................................................................. 18 Power in resistors ............................................................................................................................... 20 Open and Short Circuits ...................................................................................................................... 20 Conductors .......................................................................................................................................... 21 Circuits (Networks) Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 22 Learning objectives: ................................................................................................................................ 22
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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 2 Definitions ............................................................................................................................................... 22 Branch ................................................................................................................................................. 22 Node/Super node ................................................................................................................................ 22 Mesh and loop .................................................................................................................................... 23 Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) ............................................................................................................... 24 Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) ............................................................................................................... 24 Series circuits ...................................................................................................................................... 25 Parallel Circuits .................................................................................................................................... 25 Resistances in series ........................................................................................................................... 26 Resistances in parallel ......................................................................................................................... 26 Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents .................................................................... 27 Voltage Divider and Current Divider Circuits ......................................................................................... 28 Voltage Division .................................................................................................................................. 28 Current Division .................................................................................................................................. 29 Practical Voltage and Current Sources .................................................................................................... 30 Measuring Devices .................................................................................................................................. 31 Ohmmeter ........................................................................................................................................... 31 Ammeter ............................................................................................................................................. 31 Voltmeter ............................................................................................................................................ 32 Watt meter .......................................................................................................................................... 32 Resistive Network Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 34 Learning Objectives: ................................................................................................................................ 34 Node Voltage Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 34 Steps of Node Voltage Analysis method ............................................................................................. 34 Case: Node analysis with one source and resistors ............................................................................ 35
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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 3 Case 2: Having an ideal current source between two nodes .............................................................. 36 Analysis with controlled sources (dependent sources) ...................................................................... 37 Case 3: Having an ideal voltage source connected between two nodes ............................................ 38 The mesh current analysis method ......................................................................................................... 39 Steps of mesh current analysis ........................................................................................................... 39 Case : With a voltage source in one of the branches ......................................................................... 41 Case: with a current source in one of the branches ........................................................................... 42 Case: mesh analysis with controlled sources ...................................................................................... 43 The principle of Superposition ................................................................................................................ 45 Linearity .............................................................................................................................................. 45 One port networks and equivalent circuits ................................................................................................ 48 Thevenin’s Equivalent ............................................................................................................................. 48 Finding the Thevenin’s resistance T R ................................................................................................ 49 Norton Equivalent ................................................................................................................................... 52 Source conversion: .............................................................................................................................. 53 Experimental determination of Thevenin and Norton equivalents ........................................................ 54 Maximum power transfer ....................................................................................................................... 56 Source loading ..................................................................................................................................... 57 Nonlinear elements ................................................................................................................................. 57 Graphical (Load line) analysis ............................................................................................................. 58 Energy storage elements: Inductance and Capacitance ............................................................................ 60 Capacitance ............................................................................................................................................. 60 Capacitor current in terms of voltage ................................................................................................. 61 Capacitor voltage in terms of current ................................................................................................. 61 Stored Energy ...................................................................................................................................... 61
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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 4 Capacitances in series and parallel ..................................................................................................... 62 Capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor ........................................................................................ 63 Practical Capacitors ............................................................................................................................. 64 Electrolytic Capacitors ......................................................................................................................... 65 Parasitic Effects ................................................................................................................................... 65 Inductance .............................................................................................................................................. 65 Inductor current in terms of voltage .................................................................................................. 66 Energy stored in an inductor ............................................................................................................... 67 Inductance in series and parallel ........................................................................................................ 67 Mutual Inductance .............................................................................................................................. 68 Comparison of capacitor and inductor ............................................................................................... 69 DC Transients .............................................................................................................................................. 70 Learning objectives: ................................................................................................................................ 70 RC circuits ................................................................................................................................................ 70 Discharge of a capacitor through a resistance .................................................................................... 70 Charging capacitor form a DC source through a resistance ............................................................... 71 DC Steady State ................................................................................................................................... 72 RL circuits ................................................................................................................................................ 73 RC and RL circuits with general sources .................................................................................................. 74 Second order circuits .............................................................................................................................. 75 Steady state sinusoidal analysis .................................................................................................................. 77 Time
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