EE1002 Notes Part1 - Contents 6 SubdivisionsofEE.6...

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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 1 Contents Overview of Electrical Engineering . .............................................................................................................. 6 Subdivisions of EE: . ................................................................................................................................... 6 SI units. ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 Prefixes for units . ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. ................................................................................................................. 9 Learning Objectives. .................................................................................................................................. 9 Definitions. ................................................................................................................................................ 9 Charge. .................................................................................................................................................. 9 Circuit. ................................................................................................................................................... 9 Electric Current . .................................................................................................................................. 10 Voltages. .............................................................................................................................................. 12 Electric Power and Sign Convention . .................................................................................................. 15 The passive sign convention . .................................................................................................................. 15 Circuit Elements and their i v characteristics . ........................................................................................ 16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law. ..................................................................................................................... 16 Conductance . ...................................................................................................................................... 17 Resistivity of common materials at room temperature . .................................................................... 18 Difference between resistor and resistance. ...................................................................................... 18 Resistor color code. ............................................................................................................................. 18 Power in resistors . .............................................................................................................................. 20 Open and Short Circuits . ..................................................................................................................... 20 Conductors. ......................................................................................................................................... 21 Circuits (Networks) Analysis. ...................................................................................................................... 22 Learning objectives: . ............................................................................................................................... 22
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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 2 Definitions. .............................................................................................................................................. 22 Branch . ................................................................................................................................................ 22 Node/Super node. ............................................................................................................................... 22 Mesh and loop . ................................................................................................................................... 23 Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) . .............................................................................................................. 24 Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) . .............................................................................................................. 24 Series circuits . ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Parallel Circuits. ................................................................................................................................... 25 Resistances in series . .......................................................................................................................... 26 Resistances in parallel. ........................................................................................................................ 26 Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents. ................................................................... 27 Voltage Divider and Current Divider Circuits . ........................................................................................ 28 Voltage Division . ................................................................................................................................. 28 Current Division . ................................................................................................................................. 29 Practical Voltage and Current Sources. ................................................................................................... 30 Measuring Devices. ................................................................................................................................. 31 Ohmmeter. .......................................................................................................................................... 31 Ammeter . ............................................................................................................................................ 31 Voltmeter. ........................................................................................................................................... 32 Watt meter. ......................................................................................................................................... 32 Resistive Network Analysis . ........................................................................................................................ 34 Learning Objectives:. ............................................................................................................................... 34 Node Voltage Analysis . ........................................................................................................................... 34 Steps of Node Voltage Analysis method. ............................................................................................ 34 Case: Node analysis with one source and resistors. ........................................................................... 35
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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 3 Case 2: Having an ideal current source between two nodes. ............................................................. 36 Analysis with controlled sources (dependent sources) . ..................................................................... 37 Case 3: Having an ideal voltage source connected between two nodes. ........................................... 38 The mesh current analysis method. ........................................................................................................ 39 Steps of mesh current analysis . .......................................................................................................... 39 Case : With a voltage source in one of the branches. ........................................................................ 41 Case: with a current source in one of the branches. .......................................................................... 42 Case: mesh analysis with controlled sources. ..................................................................................... 43 The principle of Superposition. ............................................................................................................... 45 Linearity . ............................................................................................................................................. 45 One port networks and equivalent circuits. ............................................................................................... 48 Thevenin’s Equivalent. ............................................................................................................................ 48 Finding the Thevenin’s resistance T R ................................................................................................ 49 Norton Equivalent. .................................................................................................................................. 52 Source conversion:. ............................................................................................................................. 53 Experimental determination of Thevenin and Norton equivalents. ....................................................... 54 Maximum power transfer. ...................................................................................................................... 56 Source loading. .................................................................................................................................... 57 Nonlinear elements. ................................................................................................................................ 57 Graphical (Load line) analysis . ............................................................................................................ 58 Energy storage elements: Inductance and Capacitance. ........................................................................... 60 Capacitance. ............................................................................................................................................ 60 Capacitor current in terms of voltage. ................................................................................................ 61 Capacitor voltage in terms of current. ................................................................................................ 61 Stored Energy. ..................................................................................................................................... 61
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EE1002 Introduction to Circuits and Systems 4 Capacitances in series and parallel . .................................................................................................... 62 Capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor. ....................................................................................... 63 Practical Capacitors. ............................................................................................................................ 64 Electrolytic Capacitors. ........................................................................................................................ 65 Parasitic Effects. .................................................................................................................................. 65 Inductance . ............................................................................................................................................. 65 Inductor current in terms of voltage . ................................................................................................. 66 Energy stored in an inductor. .............................................................................................................. 67 Inductance in series and parallel . ....................................................................................................... 67 Mutual Inductance. ............................................................................................................................. 68 Comparison of capacitor and inductor . .............................................................................................. 69 DC Transients . ............................................................................................................................................. 70 Learning objectives: . ............................................................................................................................... 70 RC circuits. ............................................................................................................................................... 70 Discharge of a capacitor through a resistance. ................................................................................... 70 Charging capacitor form a DC source through a resistance . .............................................................. 71 DC Steady State. .................................................................................................................................. 72 RL circuits . ............................................................................................................................................... 73 RC and RL circuits with general sources. ................................................................................................. 74 Second order circuits . ............................................................................................................................. 75 Steady state sinusoidal analysis. ................................................................................................................. 77 Time dependent signal sources.
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EE1002 Notes Part1 - Contents 6 SubdivisionsofEE.6...

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