Different standards vallone et al 1985 vallone more

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Unformatted text preview: tions. . . bias! bias! over time you end up with a very unbalanced world view A. they selectively recall opposing arguments which are more salient salient and memorable than confirming arguments; and/or So, So, more extreme attitudes, more extreme judgments But. But. . . no more persuasive than telekinetic pixies... have to explain the phenomena that's explaining the phenomena... B. they categorize both opposing and neutral content as hostile to to their views. But. But. . . If it's true that partisans perceive media differently, need another mechanism... select. recall & select. categorization. Very little evidence for both select. recall / select. categorization. Ppl tend to be better at remembering info that confirms their position (disconfirm select. recall explanation). Could it be that select. recall is correct, but ppl differentially weight things? ex. Ppl weight things that confirm their position as more important than opposing/neutral things? Some evidence for select. categorization? 1 Gunther - media with wide reach (famous newspapers, TV networks, etc) ppl tend to view as hostile toward ingroup. Reach of source is much lower (ex. opinion of a research person) you tend to get form of biased assimilation (ex. "Oh yeah, I agree with this"). Gunther proposes Media Reach Effect --> Hostile Media Effect. prediction: High reach > high hostile media effect, etc? condition: one looks like newspaper editorial, one looks like student essay student essay less likely to produce hostile media effect than newspaper editorial sources: essay vs newspaper editorial confounded with reach. a fair comparison of reach would've been SB Newspress vs NY Times (still confounded with other things but it's a cleaner comparison than Gunther's study) Still Still more explanations. . . Matheson & Dursun (2001) Media Media reach (Gunther). Hostile media (Gunther). perceptions found in mass media contexts where many are influenced, but biased assimilation in private contexts. So. . . Cognitive Cognitive differentiation between ingroup and outgroup outgroup no explanation - just an observation... Motivated reasoning associated with activations Motivated reas...
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