Chem_Final_Sheet

Chem_Final_Sheet - Solubility Guidelines: Almost all...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ca Na Mg Al Cr Zn Fe Cd Ni Sn Pb H 2 Cu Ag Hg Molarity (M) = mol solute / vol (L) solute Mol solute = vol solution before X M before = vol solution after X M after Solubility Guidelines: Almost all nitrates, acetates, perchlorates, group 1A metal salts, and ammonium salts are SOLUABLE Most chlorides, bromides, and iodides are SOLUBLE. Except: those of Pb 2+ , Ag + , and Hg 2 2+ Most sulfates are SOLUBLE. Except: those of Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2 2+ All chlorates are SOLUBLE Most carbonates, hydroxides, phosphates, and sulfides are INSOLUBLE . Except: aluminum and group 1A metal salts of any of those anions are soluble; hydroxides and sulfides of Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ are slightly to moderately soluble Oxidation Numbers: 1) Zero for uncombined elements 2) Charge on monatomic ion 3) F is always -1, other halogens -1 except when combined with more electonegative halogen or oxygen 4) Group 1A metals are +1 5) H is +1 except in metal hydrides where it is -1 6) O is -2, except when combined with F, then +1 or +2, or in peroxides -1 7) Sum of oxidation state equals charge on ion or molecule Oxidation: loss of electrons. Oxidizing agent accepts electron. Oxidation number increases Reduction: gain in electrons. Reducing agent donates electrons. Oxidation number decreases Strong acids : HCL, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 Strong Bases : LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Mg(OH) 2 , Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 Boyle’s Law : C = PV P initial X V initial = P final X V final Charles’ Law : V/T = C V initial / T initial = V final / T final Avogadro’s Law : V/n = C 1 mol gas = 22.4 L gas (at STP) STP: 273.15 K (0 o C) and 760 Torr Combined Gas Law : PV/nT P 1 V 1 / n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 / n 2 T 2 Ideal Gas Law : PV = nRT Gases act like ideal gasses at low pressure and high temperature Mass in grams (m) = number of moles (n) X molar mass (M) M = m/n mRT = MPV d = MP/RT Elephant seals dive to depths as great as 1250 m. What is the pressure, in atmospheres, exerted by water at that depth? The densities of water and mercury are 1.00 g/mL and 13.6 g/mL, respectively. The pressure exerted by a column of liquid is proportional to its density and its height. A 760 mm column of mercury exerts a pressure of 1 atm. The pressure of the water column is then (1 atm/760 mmHg) * (1 g/mL H 2 O/13.6 g/mL Hg) * (1000 mm/1 m) * 1250 m H 2 O = 121 atm Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes : The volume of gaseous reactants and products are in small whole number ratios when they are measured at the same temperature and pressure Dalton’s law of partial pressures : The total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each gas P total = P 1 + P 2 +… P 1 / P total = P 1 / P 1 + P 2 + … P total x V = n total x RT Mole fraction : x i / x total where x is any gas component Collection of gases over water : P total = P gas + P water Work (w) = -PΔV when a gas expands, the volume is positive, and the work is negative, which means it looses energy. When a gas is compressed, volume is negative and work is positive, and energy is gained Change in internal eneegy (ΔU) = q + w If heat is absorbed by the system q > 0. If work is done on the system, w >0. If heat is given off by the system q < 0. If work is done by the system, w < 0.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course CHEM 11a taught by Professor Epstein during the Fall '06 term at Brandeis.

Page1 / 4

Chem_Final_Sheet - Solubility Guidelines: Almost all...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online