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Chem_Final_Sheet - Solubility Guidelines Almost all...

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Ca Na Mg Al Cr Zn Fe Cd Ni Sn Pb H 2 Cu Ag Hg Molarity (M) = mol solute / vol (L) solute Mol solute = vol solution before X M before = vol solution after X M after Solubility Guidelines: Almost all nitrates, acetates, perchlorates, group 1A metal salts, and ammonium salts are SOLUABLE Most chlorides, bromides, and iodides are SOLUBLE. Except: those of Pb 2+ , Ag + , and Hg 2 2+ Most sulfates are SOLUBLE. Except: those of Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2 2+ All chlorates are SOLUBLE Most carbonates, hydroxides, phosphates, and sulfides are INSOLUBLE . Except: aluminum and group 1A metal salts of any of those anions are soluble; hydroxides and sulfides of Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ are slightly to moderately soluble Oxidation Numbers: 1) Zero for uncombined elements 2) Charge on monatomic ion 3) F is always -1, other halogens -1 except when combined with more electonegative halogen or oxygen 4) Group 1A metals are +1 5) H is +1 except in metal hydrides where it is -1 6) O is -2, except when combined with F, then +1 or +2, or in peroxides -1 7) Sum of oxidation state equals charge on ion or molecule Oxidation: loss of electrons. Oxidizing agent accepts electron. Oxidation number increases Reduction: gain in electrons. Reducing agent donates electrons. Oxidation number decreases Strong acids : HCL, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 Strong Bases : LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Mg(OH) 2 , Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 Boyle’s Law : C = PV P initial X V initial = P final X V final Charles’ Law : V/T = C V initial / T initial = V final / T final Avogadro’s Law : V/n = C 1 mol gas = 22.4 L gas (at STP) STP: 273.15 K (0 o C) and 760 Torr Combined Gas Law : PV/nT P 1 V 1 / n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 / n 2 T 2 Ideal Gas Law : PV = nRT Gases act like ideal gasses at low pressure and high temperature Mass in grams (m) = number of moles (n) X molar mass (M) M = m/n mRT = MPV d = MP/RT Elephant seals dive to depths as great as 1250 m. What is the pressure, in atmospheres, exerted by water at that depth? The densities of water and mercury are 1.00 g/mL and 13.6 g/mL, respectively. The pressure exerted by a column of liquid is proportional to its density and its height. A 760 mm column of mercury exerts a pressure of 1 atm. The pressure of the water column is then (1 atm/760 mmHg) * (1 g/mL H 2 O/13.6 g/mL Hg) * (1000 mm/1 m) * 1250 m H 2 O = 121 atm Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes : The volume of gaseous reactants and products are in small whole number ratios when they are measured at the same temperature and pressure Dalton’s law of partial pressures : The total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each gas P total = P 1 + P 2 +… P 1 / P total = P 1 / P 1 + P 2 + … P total x V = n total x RT Mole fraction : x i / x total where x is any gas component Collection of gases over water : P total = P gas + P water Work (w) = -PΔV when a gas expands, the volume is positive, and the work is negative, which means it looses energy. When a gas is compressed, volume is negative and work is positive, and energy is gained Change in internal eneegy (ΔU) = q + w If heat is absorbed by the system q > 0. If work is done on the system, w >0. If heat is given off by the system q < 0. If work is done by the system, w < 0.
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