= mol solute / vol (L) solute
= vol solution
= vol solution
Almost all nitrates, acetates, perchlorates, group 1A metal salts, and ammonium salts are SOLUABLE
Most chlorides, bromides, and iodides are SOLUBLE. Except: those of Pb
, and Hg
Most sulfates are SOLUBLE.
Except: those of Sr
, and Hg
All chlorates are SOLUBLE
Most carbonates, hydroxides, phosphates, and sulfides are INSOLUBLE . Except: aluminum and group 1A metal salts of any of those anions are soluble;
hydroxides and sulfides of Ca
, and Ba
are slightly to moderately soluble
Zero for uncombined elements
Charge on monatomic ion
F is always -1, other halogens -1 except when combined with more electonegative halogen or oxygen
Group 1A metals are +1
H is +1 except in metal hydrides where it is -1
O is -2, except when combined with F, then +1 or +2, or in peroxides -1
Sum of oxidation state equals charge on ion or molecule
loss of electrons. Oxidizing agent accepts electron.
Oxidation number increases
gain in electrons.
Reducing agent donates electrons. Oxidation number decreases
: HCL, HBr, HI, HNO
: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Mg(OH)
: C = PV
: V/T = C
: V/n = C
1 mol gas = 22.4 L gas (at STP)
STP: 273.15 K (0
C) and 760 Torr
Combined Gas Law
Ideal Gas Law
: PV = nRT
Gases act like ideal gasses at low pressure and high temperature
Mass in grams (m) = number of moles (n) X molar mass (M)
M = m/n mRT = MPV
d = MP/RT
Elephant seals dive to depths as great as 1250 m.
What is the pressure, in atmospheres,
exerted by water at that depth?
The densities of water and mercury are 1.00 g/mL and 13.6
The pressure exerted by a column of liquid is proportional to its density and its height.
760 mm column of mercury exerts a pressure of 1 atm.
The pressure of the water column is
(1 atm/760 mmHg) * (1 g/mL H
O/13.6 g/mL Hg) * (1000 mm/1 m) * 1250 m H
O = 121
Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes
: The volume of gaseous reactants and products are in
small whole number ratios when they are measured at the same temperature and pressure
Dalton’s law of partial pressures
: The total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial
pressures exerted by each gas
x V = n
where x is any gas component
Collection of gases over water
Work (w) = -PΔV when a gas expands, the volume is positive, and the
work is negative,
which means it looses energy. When a gas is
compressed, volume is negative and work is positive, and energy is gained
Change in internal eneegy (ΔU) = q + w
system q > 0. If work is
the system, w >0.
If heat is
the system q < 0.
If work is
the system, w < 0.