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How easily can one determine

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Unformatted text preview: ) Spiral of silence / conspiracy of silence - not reporting errors / misconceptions that you think are your fault (you're in the minority and don't want to be singled out). Even though this may not be true- the majority might be having the same problem, and we need to find out. Learned helplessness - after failing to do a talk multiple times, people often decide that they cannot do the task (they are helpless) Taught helplessness - perceived difficulty in one task generalizes to the whole, so that we feel (self- blame) that we cannot do tasks (such as in mathematics, where each successive task requires complete understanding of previous tasks). A sort of self- fulfilling prophecy that we are unable to accomplish a task due to previous difficulty / failure. 7 Stages of Action: 1 for goals, 3 for execution, 3 for evaluation: • Forming the Goal • Forming the intention • Specifying an action • Executing the action • Perceiving the state of the world • Interpreting the state of the world • Evaluating the outcome THE GULF OF EXECUTION: does the system provide actions that correspond to the intentions of the user? THE GULF OF EVALUATION: does the system provide a physical representation that can be directly perceived and that is directly interpretable in terms of the intentions and expectations of the user? Each of the seven stages are good for checking that the gulfs of execution and evaluation are bridged. How easily can one: Determine The Function of the Device? Tell What Actions Are Possible? Tell if System is in Desired State? Determine Mapping from Intention Determine Mapping from System to Physical Movement? State to Interpretation? Perform the Action? Tell What State the System is In? These questions boil down to the principles of design from Chapter 1: Visibility, A good conceptual model, Good mappings, and Feedback Chapter 3: Knowledge in the Head and in the World (Memory) We can have precise behavior on how to do a task wi...
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