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Emancipatory Theory: guided by a simple question. What is the meaning of emancipation? Who is being emancipated? Why is positivist theory non-emancipatory:Because society is a reality, pseudo journalist of its own kind. It’s a natural reality. Governed by the laws that have the same characters as natural law. What these scientists can hope for I to discover these laws, but they can’t tweak it. Rejects the revolutionizing of society because if you want to change society, you can only do this through these laws. So sociologists can only hope for slow change through these processes of law. Who was Durkheim? Why is his theory so different from Marx?A. The central question of Durkheim’s work is about solidarity, the nature of the social bond, what holds societies together? What processes increase solidarity or destroy it? For him solidarity: a question that preoccupies mainstream sociology from here on. What is the tie that holds society together and gives it a sense of stability. What is it that supports the social bond and what destroys or weakens it?B. This question clearly is very different from Marx’s question about the emancipatory agent.C. The reasons for the difference are biographical and political, but they have come to shape the outlook of mainstream sociology ever since.D. Durkheim’s interest in solidarity is intimately connected with his being a supporter of the French Third Republic.Opposers of the third republic just like the first one was dangerous because it encouraged freedom to individuals. Which is dangerous (individualism) because this jeopardizes the stability of society.E. First. Because the ideals of universal citizenship and human rights championed by the Third Republic permitted him to become a citizen like anybody else- he was Jewish- to be “simply French”. (Durkheim owes everything that he his to the Third Republic because it promises equality (no matter who you are and what ethnicity you pertain to. He turned into a secular person (he eats pork) hence a citizen of the French Republic. It is tied to the identity of who he is. He also gets his first job (chair in the pedagogy of sociology) Basically this is a sensitive job because he is the one