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L31 462a_carb1_lec31_2012

L31 462a_carb1_lec31_2012 - Lec.31,Bioc462a,Fall2012...

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Carbohydrates and Glycobiology I Lec. 31, Bioc 462a, Fall 2012 Nov 5, 2012
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Learning ObjecDves General structure of monosaccharides How monosaccharides cyclize (anomers) Glycosidic bond links two monosaccharides Physical properDes of common polysaccharides and their funcDons General properDes of glycoconjugates Glycoproteins are informaDon rich molecules
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Carbohydrates aka. saccharides or sugar Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecules on earth Derived from CO 2 and H 2 O by photosynthesis Photosynthesis produces 100 billion metric tons of carbohydrates – cellulose and other plant products containing C, H & O with general formula: (CH 2 O) n
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Carbohydrates Do not catalyze complex chemical reac±ons as do proteins Do not replicate themselves as do nucleic acids, DNA, RNA Are not built according to a gene±c “blueprint”, unlike nucleic acids and proteins Tend to be more heterogeneous, in size and in composi±on, than other biological molecules The structural varia±on in carbohydrates is fundamental to their biological ac±vity The apparently haphazard arrangements of carbohydrates on proteins and on the surfaces of cells are the key to many recogni±on events between proteins and between cells.
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Carbohydrate FuncDons NutriDonal • Energy storage – glycogen, starch • Fuels – glucose • Metabolic intermediates Structural • Cell walls – bacteria, plants • Exoskeleton – arthropods • ConnecDve Dssues, carDlage, bone • Components of nucleoDdes InformaDonal • Molecular recogniDon • Cell‐cell communicaDon
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L31 462a_carb1_lec31_2012 - Lec.31,Bioc462a,Fall2012...

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