11.03 Dev Rev ppt

11.03 Dev Rev ppt - Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms MCB...

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12/2/12 1 Review Sessions for Final Exam Th 3:30, 5; Fri 10, 11 Final Exam (here): Thursday Dec 13 1-3pm MCB 305 Summary and Review of Development Material! Gene expression in development is controlled at several levels, e.g. transcription, post-transcriptional processing, post- translational protein modifications. and it is controlled combinatorially. e.g. by multiple transcription factors acting positively and negatively with each other and with DNA regulatory elements. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Transcription factors control rate of transcription initiation by the TIC TIC Below is the pax-6 gene, which encodes a transcription factor expressed in many different places in the embryo Given this information, what do you expect is true of the RNAs and proteins that will be made from the pax-6 gene? a.Two different length RNAs and two different length proteins can be made b.Two different length RNAs are made; the protein is the same length no matter what c.Only transcription site A will be used; one size protein will result d.Only transcription site B will be used, one size protein will result. Transcription initiation site A Orange: exons Green: enhancers (REs) Transcription initiation site B Signaling pathways (a small number) allow cells during development to communicate with each other, and they act combinatorially to control gene expression, cell behavior Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Remember that combinatorial controls often turn off genes where they are not supposed to be expressed, as well as turning on genes where they are supposed to be expressed.
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12/2/12 2 Crystallin gene Somatostatin gene Both of the genes shown below have large enhancer regions to which the transcription factor Pax-6 can bind. What is the best explanation for why crystallin protein is found only in the eye, while somatostatin protein is found only in the pancreas?
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