Lecture 4 slides

Introns regulatory regions splicing enhancers and

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Unformatted text preview: been retracted. 4 8/29/12 Back to overall mechanisms of regula>on in development A3 9-2 5 8/29/12 Short aside into compara>ve genomics: Genome sizes in various phyla C. elegans A 8 ­6 Gene: Genome rela>onships in five organisms Organism Size (Mb) Estimated Coding gene number percentage E. coli 5 ~ 4,000 ~ 80% Yeast 20 ~ 5,000 ~ 50% Caenorhabditis 97 ~ 19,000 ~ 20% 180 ~ 13,000 ~ 8% 3,000 <30,000 ~ 1% Drosophila Human 6 8/29/12 In the genomes of more complex organisms, there is a much higher propor>on of non ­coding DNA than there is in the smaller genomes What s in the non ­coding DNA? introns regulatory regions splicing enhancers and silencers transcrip>on enhancers and silencers transposons untranslated RNAs micro RNAs junk (unknown func>on) Take home message: complexity is in the regulaCon…not the number of protein coding Sequences. You cloned a gene that encodes a muscle ­specific enzyme and determined the transcripCon start site as indicated in A, and you wish to determine whether there is a methylated CG sequence in the promoter region that becomes demethylated in myoblasts (muscle precursor cells) before the gene is expressed. You extract DNA from myobla...
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