Lab 4 - Solubility Rules

Lab 4 - Solubility Rules - Lab 4 Solubility Rules Contents...

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4/15/13 Lab 4 - Solubility Rules www.webassign.net/ebooks/wsugencheml1/lab_4/manual.html 1/5 Contents > Lab 4 - Solubility Rules Lab 4 - Solubility Rules Purpose To develop a set of solubility rules. Goals To observe trends in solubility and exceptions to these trends. To write chemical formulas based on cation/anion charges. To learn to write net ionic equations. Introduction Chemical reactions can be classified into five major classes: 1 Combination or Synthesis (formation) reactions: Two substances combine to form a compound. The generic expression is: ( 1 ) A + B → C Examples of such reactions include: ( 2 ) 2 Ca + O 2 → 2 CaO ( 3 ) N 2 + 3 H 2 → 2 NH 3 2 Decomposition reactions: The opposite of a combination reaction, a compound breaks apart to form two or more products. The generic expression is: ( 4 ) AB → A + B ( 5 ) CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2 ( 6 )
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4/15/13 Lab 4 - Solubility Rules www.webassign.net/ebooks/wsugencheml1/lab_4/manual.html 2/5 2 H 2 O → 2 H 2 + O 2 3 Single Displacement Reactions: One element, ion, or functional group displaces another element, ion, or functional group from a compound. The generic expression is: ( 7 ) A + BC → AC + B Some examples include: ( 8 ) Cu + 2 HNO 3 → Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 ( 9 ) Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl 2 + H 2 4 Double Displacement or Metathesis Reactions: The atoms or ions in two or more different substances change places to form new compounds. The generic expression is: ( 10 ) AB + CD → AD + CB ( 11 ) HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) → NaC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( 12 ) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2 KI( aq ) → PbI 2 ( aq ) + 2 KNO 3 ( aq ) Double displacement reactions fall into at least two major subclasses. Equation 11 shows one of them, a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base. Equation 12 shows another, a precipitation reaction. Soluble species (generally ions) react to form insoluble solid compounds that are called precipitates . 5 Electron Transfer or Redox reactions: Electrons are transferred from one substance to another. These will be treated separately in this lab course. In this experiment, we will work with precipitation reactions involving ions. Ionic solids dissolve in water by a process known as dissolution . If an appreciable amount of the solid dissolves, it is said to be soluble . The ions are solvated by water, and free to move independently of each other in the solution. When two aqueous solutions of ionic substances are mixed, the mobile ions in each solution interact with each other. Coulomb's law describes the interaction between the ions (charged particles).
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Lab 4 - Solubility Rules - Lab 4 Solubility Rules Contents...

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