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Unformatted text preview: s the bond angle . Figure 6
Also shown in the above table are the hybridize d orbitals used to form the σ- bonds (sigma bonds) and to
hold the lone pairs. Chemists invoke hybrid orbitals based on the assumption that one atom will point its electron
region directly at an atom to which it bonds. s orbitals do not point in any direction, and simple p atomic orbitals
lie 90o apart along the x - , y- and z- axes. Regions in space that point 109°, 120° or 180° apart result by taking
mathematical combinations (hybrids) of the simple atomic orbitals. Hybrid orbitals have thus been incorporated
into the language that describes covalent bonding.
When we use the term molecular geometry or molecular
shape, we are not describing the shape of the electron regions, but rather, the location of the atoms. The words
used to describe the shapes are therefore describing the location of the atoms. Where four atoms surround a
central atom, the shape would be te trahe dral. Where three atoms surround a central atom, the shape would
either be trig...
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This document was uploaded on 01/22/2014.
- Spring '14