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The gem demolishes two widely held myths about gender

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Unformatted text preview: expected to push an es1mated 64 million more people into extreme poverty in 2010. ì༎  About one in four children under the age of five is underweight in the developing world, down from almost one in three in 1990. advantage rooted in attitudes and cu tices that diminish the value of girls Progress in these areas is inherently cult to track on a comparative basis, equally fundamental. Beyond parity in education the clude female representation in parlia indicator of progress towards the em of women. e gender empowerme (GEM) developed by the Human D Report includes this indicator in a br posite indicator that tracks female tion in legislative bodies, governme private sector, along with a range indicators. Decomposing the GEM to prov shot of women’s current position hig limited progress towards gender emp Globally, women hold only about 15% tive assembly seats. In only 43 coun ratio of female to male parliamenta than 1 to 5, and in only two—R Sweden—is the ratio even close to most countries politics remains an o ingly male domain. Nigeria is one of 57 countrie women account for less than 10% o presence. Women account for 6% o House of Representatives, less than Senate and no state governors. In Sa and the United Arab Emirates there representation, in some cases re ect of laws to exclude women from voti ing o ce. In countries where gender Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education ì༎  Target 2A: By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys ì༎  Enrollment in primary educa1on in developing regions reached 89 per cent in 2008, up from 83 per cent in 2000. ì༎  The current pace of progress is insufficient to meet the target by 2015. ì༎  About 69 million school- age children are not in school. Almost half of them (31 million) are in sub- Saharan Africa, and more than a quarter (18 million) are in Southern Asia. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education 1 T he state o f human development is a major barrier to progress in health, education and income poverty, such underrepresentation of women points to a worrying continuation of gender inequality and obstacles to social and income progress. The GEM demolishes two widely held myths about gender empowerment. First, there is no evidence that Islam necessarily represents an obstacle to female empowerment, as measured by political representation. Malaysia, a Muslim country, has a GEM far higher than Saudi Arabia’s and comparable to that of Greece. Second, there is no clear evidence that gender inequalities automatically diminish at higher levels of income ( g ure 1.24). Two members of the Group of Seven (G-7) industrial countries are poor performers on the GEM. Both Italy (ranked 36) and Japan (ranked 42) occupy a lower position than Costa Rica and Argentina. Similarly, both Japan and Sweden are democracies at comparable levels of human development as measured by the HDI, but Sweden’s GEM...
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