Lecture4

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Unformatted text preview: t, almost 70 in developed countries occur age of 70, compared to ap 30% in developing countries. 10 0 ed op el ev D y y lit lit ta ion ta ion or g or g m re m re wg gh ng Lo opin Hi lopi el ve ev de d on gi re 0-4 5-14 ld or W 15-59 60+ Source: WHO, 2003 Furthermore, there is a grow of chronic and noncom diseases in the poor coun recently, major risk factors blood pressure, cholestero alcohol, obesity, and the chro linked to them - were thoug threat only in high-income c aim is to further cut child mortality by two thirds. Six causes account for 73% of the 10.6 million deaths in children under five years: pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, neonatal pneumonia or sepsis, preterm delivery and asphyxia at birth. of 172 per 1000 live births in subSaharan Africa (see Figure 3). In relation to the goal, the difference between regions in the reduction of U5MR over the period 1990-2003 is striking. Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and south-eastern Asia have made rapid progress, but other regions are clearly not on track. For a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa with high levels of HIV infection this can, to some extent, be attributed to mother-tochild transmission of HIV. Health Facts Figure 3: Under-five mortality rate per 1000 live births, 1990 and 2003 185 172 Sub-Saharan Africa 126 Southern Asia 90 83 78 Commonwealth of Independent States, Asia 86 77 Oceania 68 60 Western Asia 78 South-Eastern Asia Northern Africa Eastern Asia Latin American and the Caribbean Commonwealth of Independent States, Europe 46 87 38 48 37 54 32 21 21 105 Developing regions 88 1990 2003 2015 target Sources: UNICEF, WHO Health and the Millennium Development Goals in 2005 For most countries, however, progress in reducing child deaths has also slowed because efforts to reduce malnutrition and to achieve full coverage with interventions against diarrhoea, pneumonia, vaccine-preventable diseases, and malaria have been inadequate. If trends in U5MR during the 1990s continue at the same rate until 2015, the reduction of U5MR worldwide over the period 1990-2015 will be about one quarter, far from the goal of a two thirds reduction. Even if the rate of reduction increased fivefold, the goal of a two thirds reduction would still not be reached by 2015. reaching that of the European countries in 1950. However, this rate of increase has slowed in recent decades. greater risk o with 10 years deaths amon in this regio slowed due and treatmen and socioeco conflicts, inst Those who do are confronte that exceed t Health Facts Figure 1: Differentials in child mortality in three developing countries according to socioeconomic status Probability of dying before age 5 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 Poor Non-poor Niger Poor Non-poor Bangladesh Poor Non-poor Bolivia The result of t the health populations (3 considerable between ric within countr than 60 cou Health Facts Figure 5: Maternal Mortality Ratio per 100 000 live births, 2000 Sources: UNICEF, WHO No data Low (<100) Moderate (100-299) High (300-549) Very high (>= 550) rrelated with maternal tios. is indicator during the 1990s at significant prog...
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This document was uploaded on 01/18/2014.

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