Based barnard drew attention away from formal

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Unformatted text preview: attention away from formal organizational structures toward Barnard communication, cooperation, and the informal organization. His work was integrated by other theorists in the human relations movement. Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor Theory Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) Articulated basic principles of human relations theory The Human Side of Enterprise (1960, 1985) To understand human behavior, one must discover the theoretical assumptions upon which behavior is based Especially interested in the behavior of managers toward workers “Every managerial act rests on assumptions, generalizations, and hypotheses--that is to say, on theory . . . Theory and practice are inseparable.” Two Objectives: • Predict and control behavior • Tap Unrealized potential Theory X - Classical Theory Theory Y - Human Relations Theory FOCUS: Manager’s assumptions about HUMAN NATURE Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor Theory Theory X - Classical Theory Three Assumptions • • • The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it. Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, wants security. Neither explains nor describes human nature Theory Y - Human Relations Theory Assumptions • • • • • • Physical and mental effort in work is similar to play / rest. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only strategies Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek The responsibility responsibility The capacity to exercise a high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the The solution of organizational problems is widely distributed in the population solution Intellectual potentialities of the average human being are underutilized A more positive perspective of human nature The KEY to control and quality production is commitment to organizational The objectives objectives Theory Y Prototype: The Scanlon Plan Theory Participative Management Two Central Features Cost-reduction sharing for organizational members - sharing the economic Cost-reduction gains from improvements in organizational performance gains Effective participation - a formal means of providing opportunities to every Effective member of the organization to contribute ideas for improving organizational effectiveness. effectiveness. Must be i...
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