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3 douglas mcgregor also assumed that creativity and

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Unformatted text preview: “You’ll notice that I stress a great deal improvising and inspiration. . . .” (2000, 189). Maslow believed that creativity and innovation were interchangeable terms, that a creative person seeks to change things, to challenge existing paradigms, to find new ways of doing things (1999, 200–202, for example).3 Douglas McGregor also assumed that creativity and innovation were indistinguishable. He claimed that “the capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity” to solve problems is widely distributed among people (1960, 48). McGregor’s examples in THSE of good or successful applications of Theory Y methods generally include examples of managers who innovate by recreating Note the use of rhetorical terminology: passive. Maslow did wrestle with the concept of adaptive creativity (1999, 152–155), but the bulk of his work shows a preference for, and perhaps tacit approval of, innovative creativity. 2 3 243 244 Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory their jobs or by redefining a problem. Moreover, throughout the text, McGregor’s emphasis is on breaking current paradigms, seeing problems from different perspectives, and on “relationships, rather than control” (1960, 121). McGregor shared Maslow’s belief that everyone had the potential to be self-actualized. The question remained: Why weren’t they? Needs and Work: Theory X and Theory Y For McGregor, Maslow offered a new interpretation of the work environment, one in which managers worked to facilitate the development of each employee’s potential by organizing work to meet the needs most workers were presumably seeking to satisfy: the needs for esteem and self-actualization (McGregor 1960, 41– 42). McGregor believed that most managers’ theories of motivation and most work tasks were not ordered to allow workers to satisfy these higher-level needs (1967, 76). People were not encouraged to be innovative. McGregor believed that the key to understanding these management failures was to underst...
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