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Unformatted text preview: the extreme
ends” (Kirton 1984, 11). Kirton (and others) created an index of creativity in 1976. It locates
creatively “adaptive” people at one end of the scale and creatively “innovative” people at the
Kirton’s scale (the Kirton Adaptive-Innovative Inventory, or KAII) measures respondents’ tendency to be innovative or adaptive in their work styles. The KAII is a 33-item
questionnaire on which respondents indicate how difﬁcult or easy it is for them to present
themselves “over time” in speciﬁc ways (Kirton 1976; KAII form). Scale scores may range
from 33 (highly adaptive) to 160 (highly innovative) with a mean response of 96 (Kirton
1984; Selby et al. 1993; Rosenfeld et al. 1993). Later research identiﬁed three “modes” or
substrains of creativity identiﬁed through factor analysis of the original KAII (Kirton 1978;
Taylor 1989a). These modes of creativity have been labeled the “rules-conforming” mode,
the “efﬁciency” mode, and the “sufﬁciency of originality” mode. Adapters and innovators
are identiﬁed according to their responses to the overall KAII and the individual subscales.
An adapter seeks to conform to accepted norms (Goldsmith 1984; Kirton 1976, 1989b).
He or she uses conventional rules and perceptions of work, favors precision and methodical approaches to problem solving, and is seen as a safe, predictable, and consistent person
who seldom approaches problems from new or unusual perspectives (Kirton 1976). In terms
of the three modes (originality, efﬁciency, rules conformity), adapters tend to have a high degree of rules conformity, emphasize efﬁciency, and do not generate original or untried solutions to problems. Adapters generally seek to “do things better” within existing systems
An innovator is undisciplined, willing to break traditional paradigms and “go outside
the rules.” Innovators are most successful in unstructured and rapidly changing environments in which self-conﬁdent decision making is important (Golds...
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