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work is clear direction from management (ComputerWorld 1999).
Moreover, information technology (IT) workers indicate that they are satisﬁed (and
dissatisﬁed) with the same things as other workers. They believe they are underpaid and
that they lack adequate vacation time (ComputerWorld, 1999). But most IT workers like
their bosses and would like clearer direction in job assignments. Thus, one cannot simply assume that IT people will be innovators or that an innovative management style will satisfy
all workers. In fact, given the innovative nature of IT work, one might suspect that an
adapter boss would be more likely to keep projects on time and on budget.
Ad hoc organizations are a relatively new entity. These are organizations like Dish
Network or DirecTV that have one main corporation offering a service but rely on locally 257 258 Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory contracted employees to carry out speciﬁc tasks. Bennis (2000) claimed that this type of
organization in particular requires a creative management style, that attempting to control
the actions of literally hundreds of employees spread over the entire country seems an unmanageable task unless one is willing to allow for innovation among one’s subcontractors.
However, this has not proven to be the case. Both Dish Network and DirecTV have discovered that to ensure consistent, quality installations, they must require contracted installers to follow speciﬁc guidelines and to submit photographic evidence of completed
work. Dish Network even requires that customers sign a work form indicating that installations met these guidelines and their requirements.
The main challenge presented by quasi-governmental organizations is that of democratic control and accountability. Koppel (1999) studied the U.S. Venture Capital Fund program and its two subsidiaries, the Enterprise Funds and the Overseas Private Investment
Corporation, and concluded that in order to provide democratic accountability, these organizations require close regulation and “clear, unambiguous policy objec...
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