Unformatted text preview: ity (Schmidt 1999).
The loss of job security represents a serious challenge to managers (Barrows and Wesson 2000; Ciulla 2000, 231). If employees believe corporations will not be loyal to them and
they see no reason to be loyal to companies, then managers cannot readily link individual
needs to those of their companies. The problem is particularly acute because the loss of job
security is coupled with a loss of loyalty. Barrows and Wesson (2000) have summarized literature suggesting that survivors of layoffs often respond with increased negative attitudes
toward work. McGregor argued that management’s goal was to assist employees in aligning their personal goals with those of their employer (1960, 55; in Bennis, Heil, and
Stephens 2000, 14), but employees in today’s work environment increasingly disbelieve
that such a congruence of interests is realistic (Walesh 1997; Yankelovich and Immerwahr
Job Satisfaction Americans became increasingly dissatisﬁed with their jobs throughout the 1990s. According to a Conference Board survey of ﬁve thousand households conducted by NFO Research
Incorporated, there was an 8 percent decline in overall job satisfaction among U.S. workers
in the last half of the decade (58.6 percent were “satisﬁed” or “very satisﬁed” in 1995, and
only 50.7 percent were satisﬁed or very satisﬁed in 2000; Conference Board [CB] 2000).
Americans are more dissatisﬁed with their work than are employees in Denmark, the Philippines, Cyprus, Switzerland, Israel, Spain, or The Netherlands (Oswald 1999). Oswald found
that only 49 percent of Americans were “satisﬁed or completely satisﬁed” with their jobs.
Dissatisfaction with current employment is highest among minorities and women
(United Press International [UPI] 2001; Schmidt 1999), while higher executives and more
senior personnel demonstrate the highest levels of satisfaction (Hamermesh 2001; Traut,
Larsen, and Feimer 2000). Recent surveys of newsroom employees (UPI 2001), nursing
professionals, doctors, public servants (Barrows and Wesson 20...
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