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Unformatted text preview: McGregor 1966, 43; 1967, 10–11); however, he soon began to focus on intrinsic or internal
motivations for behavior. McGregor often drew on the works of Chris Argyris, Frederick
Herzberg, and others who believed that manager-subordinate relationships should be understood as social constructs or complex role interactions (1960, 32, 55, 173, 186–88; 1967,
76). By the time McGregor began work on THSE, he had encountered the work of Abraham
Maslow. Maslow’s work not only supported McGregor’s own ideas about a hierarchy of
motivation (McGregor in Bennis, Schein, and McGregor 1966, 22, 40, 44), it provided a
stronger theoretical foundation for McGregor’s work (1960, 35–37, 67; 1967, 75; McGregor in Bennis, Schein, and McGregor 1966, 43, 52–135).1
McGregor relied upon a number of theories, including social constructivism, to explain the manager-subordinate
relationship and its pathologies. However, both internal and external evidence support the central importance of
Maslow’s hierarchy to McGregor’s new theory of management. McGregor states in THSE that Maslow’s hierarchy
was central to his work (1960, 36– 40). He noted that its key concepts (particularly self-actualization) were “central
to my view of appropriate managerial strategy” (1967, 75) and critical to the success of the Scanlon Plan (quoted in
Bennis, Schein, and McGregor 1966, 135). He often referred to fulﬁlling higher-order needs as part of management
(1960, 37, 67; 1967, 75–77; McGregor in Bennis, Schein, and McGregor 1966, 43, 52, 135). Scholars almost exclusively interpret McGregor in terms of Maslow’s hierarchy as well. Twenty-eight of the thirty-four most popular management texts discussed McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y directly in relation to Maslow. None of the twenty-four
texts that discussed social construct theory mentioned McGregor. 1 241 242 Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Figure 1
Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs. Image provided by Chris Jarvis, of the Business On Line Archives, Brunell University.
Used by Permission. http://sol.brunel.ac.uk/~jarvis/bola/motivation/masmodel.html Self actualization
Safety, security, order
Physiological needs Maslo...
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