This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: a system (Wilkinson, Godfrey, and Marchington 1997, 810; Berman
and West 1995).
The issue is more complicated than tantrums from middle managers. Managers very
often understand systems better than their subordinates do. Once again, those who support
TQM are usually discussing nonroutine tasks or special projects, while the complaint of
middle managers is that TQM is not appropriate for more routine tasks and day-to-day operations (Leidecker and Hall 1986). We ﬁnd it interesting that Wilkinson, Godfrey, and
Marchington (1997) concede that different managers implement TQM differently. Many
managers adapted to TQM readily because “this approach matched their preferred style. . . .” Bobic and Davis A Kind Word for Theory X (810). The obvious implication is that any method that expects creativity to be universally
innovative is unlikely to succeed in the long run.
CONCLUSION This article began by examining the three foundations of McGregor’s THSE. This analysis
has revealed weaknesses in these key foundations: Workers face a different work environment than they did in the 1960s, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has fallen into question, and
the concept of creativity is multidimensional. The foundations of Theory Y management
and the assumption that Theory Y management is inherently better than Theory X management must be substantially reconsidered.
On the other hand, combining Kirton’s ideas with McGregor’s helps to explain the
standard anomalies associated with Theory Y management. To those who claim Theory Y
is just a hypocritical form of Theory X (Salaman 1979) or that it does not work in the real
world, one may respond that the failure is not in the method but in the mismatch of method
to manager. These ﬁndings also explain why Theory X management persists and why some
students of management prefer Theory X assumptions: this theory ﬁts more closely with
their styles of creativity. The ﬁndings also explain why Staw and Epstein (2000) found no
View Full Document