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Unformatted text preview: re questioning the order of needs
outlined in the hierarchy. In particular, scholarly studies fail to conﬁrm at what point the
need for love emerges.
Heylighen (1992) also argued that Maslow’s concept of self-actualization was confusing and that a theory based on the gratiﬁcation of needs was not enough to explain human
behavior. By redeﬁning needs and their satisfaction, Heylighen was able to integrate
Maslow’s work into more recent personality theory. Kiel (1999) rejected the notion that
self-actualization was the pinnacle of human development; she argued that self-actualization
was itself composed of multiple layers and that the hierarchy of needs should have been a
“ladder of development.”
Rowan (1998) redeﬁned both self-actualization and esteem needs so “that [Maslow’s]
theory . . . ﬁts in much better” with current research into personality and development (84).
Note that Rowan did not intend to revise or reject Maslow but conceded in two separate
places that, without revisions, Maslow’s theory was contradicted by more recent research
(1998, 83, 85).
Even if one were to set aside such criticisms of Maslow’s model, McGregor’s use of
the hierarchy of needs would still present substantial problems. The ﬁrst problem is that
Maslow’s model was designed to explain human motivation, not necessarily employee motivation (1998; 2000, 251 and the following pages). No matter how stimulating one’s job may
be, if the bank threatens foreclosure and seizure of one’s home, one is unlikely to attempt
to satisfy higher-order needs. Alternatively, if one’s job is not particularly challenging but
Maddi (1976) argues that Maslow’s model has never been empirically contradicted, but even this work concedes
that there is little veriﬁcation of Maslow’s model. As the text demonstrates, later works have contradicted components of Maslow’s ideas. 5 249 250 Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory allows one to pursue desired hobbies or to meet the needs of home, then a person may seek
to satisfy higher-order needs. McGregor explains it thus: “Unless the job itself can be satisfying, unless there are opportunities right in the wo...
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