Unformatted text preview: mployee turnover is affected by
whether a manager is an adapter or innovator. With a manager who is an adapter, people are
less likely to leave a position if they have good relations with their coworkers. With a manager who is an innovator, people are less likely to leave a position if they are pleased with
the pay they receive.
Nicholas Skinner (1989) conducted a fascinating study indicating that men and women
both equate innovativeness in male managers with effectiveness but equated adaptiveness
with effectiveness for female managers. Clearly, what model of management is best is a
complex issue, involving considerations of the task to be performed, the subordinates to be
managed, and the output that is desired. In any event, the belief that Theory Y is superior to
Theory X cannot be supported.
IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT METHODS Evidence in this article indicates that several essential components of McGregor’s Theory
X and Theory Y require reconsideration. First is the question of what kind of management
is most appropriate for new kinds of organizations, such as technological organizations, ad
hoc organizations, and regulated monopolies. Second is the impact these ﬁndings have on
efforts to implement Theory Y ideas, in particular through the use of Total Quality Management (TQM).
Technological industries and the rise of Internet companies have led to a resurgence of
interest in McGregor’s ideas (Bennis, Heil, and Stephens 2000, 4). These companies present managers with the kinds of challenges McGregor foresaw: employees working at home
and requiring greater ﬂexibility and understanding from managers in order to produce quality products. Internet companies and software companies stress creative solutions to various
business, academic, and information control problems. Popular characterizations of those
who work at such companies emphasize their free-spirited nature and unorthodox approach
to work. Yet those who work in this industry tend to complain that what they lac...
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