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Unformatted text preview: s 1998). The youngest employees in the sample (those who were in college) had already had more jobs (a mean of ﬁve) than most retirees in the sample had held
in a lifetime of work (an average of four and a half) (Hart and Associates 1998). Employees today engage in a “constant” search for new jobs, even if they are satisﬁed with their current positions; they “remain plugged into the job market—even if they are not actively
searching for a job” (PRN News Service [PRN] 2001). This clearly contrasts with McGregor’s assumption that careers would exist largely within the same company: “With the modern emphasis on career employment and promotion from within, management must pay
more than casual attention to its recruitment practices” (1960, 186).
Workers no longer express loyalty to their place of employment, and they believe that
their employers have little loyalty to them (Camp 1995; Ciulla 2000). Of the Shell survey
respondents, 65 percent believed employees were “only slightly” loyal or “not too loyal” to
their employers. Forty-eight percent of the Shell respondents indicated that if their employer
wanted to transfer them to a different city, they would quit and ﬁnd another job in the same
city. The survey also found that most employees believe that companies are not very loyal
to their employees: fully 75 percent of respondents said companies were either somewhat
loyal or not loyal at all. Camp (1995) found that decreased loyalty to a company (in the
case of Camp’s study, decreased loyalty among prison workers) correlated strongly with
high turnover among employees. He concluded that employees begin to seek other occupations as institutional commitment declines.
Job Security Workers also demonstrate far less security in their prospects for continued employment at
any given company than they did in the 1960s and 1970s (Schmidt 1999; Valetta 1999).
Using data from the General Social Survey (1976–1997) and the Displaced Workers’ Survey (1982–1996), Schmidt (...
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