Unformatted text preview: ds contain even-numbered carbon chain.
Because the building block of a fatty acid is the two-carbon acetyl CoA. 4. Based on the information/answer in Q2 above, try to figure out how many ATPs
are generated if a molecule of palmate (16 carbons), a saturated fatty acid
enriched in palm oil, is fully oxidized.
One palmitate with 16 carbons can be cleaved 7 times by the β -oxidation
process to generate 8 molecules of acetyl CoA, which will then further
metabolized in the citric acid cycle.
Initially, palmitate has to be converted to palmityl CoA consuming one
molecule of ATP (of course, this steps requires one molecule of HS-CoA as
Each run of β -oxidation yields one molecule of FADH2 and one molecule of
NADH, which are equivalent to 4 ATP (2.5 ATPs/NADH and 1.5
ATPs/FADH2). Seven runs of β -oxidation will yield a total of 28 ATPs.
Each acetyl CoA will generate 10 ATPs (see answer for Q2 above) and 8
acetyl CoA will produce a total of 80 ATPs.
Thus, the total degradation of a palmitate yields a grand total of 107 ATPa
(80 + 28 – 1). 2 5. What is energy charge? Is glycolysis favored at high or low energy charge?
Energy charge the ratio of ([ATP] + ½ [ADP])/ [ATP] + [ADP] + [AMP]
Glycolysis will be favored when energy charge is low signaling a need to
increase ATP formation. 6. The following is a diagram from your textbook and also assigned to you during
lecture as homework material. Now, answer the questions based on what you
have learned. a) What is the function of fructose 2,6 bisphosphate in regulating glycolysis and
Epinephrine triggers the synthesis of cAMP, which activates PKA (see
signaling pathway of epinephrine). As shown in the diagram above, PKA
phosphorylates PFK2-FBPase2 knocking out PFK2 activity, hence reducing
the level of F2,6BP, leading to slowdown in glycolysis and enhancement in
gluconeogenesis for the synthesis of glucose.
F2,6BP is a regulatory molecule activating PFK, thus speeding up glycolysis,
and also reducing the inhibitory effect of ATP on PFK. F2,6BP also inhibits
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