Age of Revolution: The Industrial Revolution. The Opium war-application of mechanical forces. Started with coal power. James Watt: Scottish engineer. Her perfected the steam engine. Improve a machine that could drain water in the mines before that. Used this machine for the used of everywhere. Why Britain? •Placed in rich coal deposit (mines, coalfields) + excess of water. The Mid-Lands: where the industrialization started (Manchester first industrialized city in the world) •All the country side of England became owned by small nobility elite. They became the pool of labor reserves. Started late 18th. By 18thpeople realize changement was on the way. Textile + steam engine + making of iron bars. (sectors)Effects: -Brought up the sailing of production. (no limit)-Idea of surplus economy (own more than what you need)-imply steam engine in the factories (factories existed before in Ming dynasty but no stea engine).-Factory owner started to use women and children in their factories (smaller hands, can pay them less, more “obedient”) -leading to a new social system (small hand of people owning the wealth of the country, no running water, garbages threw in the river , no education, small children working, work accidents.Life expectancy: 17 years in Manchester at that time. Elite of the society starting to raise “social question”: idea of charity organization, police force: (see if the factory owner are exploiting the workers).Most important figure: Karl Marx: wrote in the 1840’s (was a marginal figure). Would have an enormous influence. (modern communism). For Marx, history is explained as “class struggle”.FEUDALISM----------CAPITALISM-----(REVOLUTION)------COMMUNISM(utopia?)Freemen ----- lords ----- Bourgeoisie (capitalist)XXX (no class)Slaves ------Serfs ------ Proletariats Late 19thelite started to give out welfare, running water (were scared of the revolution). The factory system change:
-the sense of time: with time regulation: people have to follow time lines. (before this time in the farm, you follow the light). Started from the RI: -the idea of distance: steam engine: fastest form of transportation. (people travel much faster-transform the geopolitical map: Britain is now producing textile (good quality). Starting to sell much more than other countries. (they are selling their textile to India, in India the textile industry is dying but instead , they send their cotton along with America to England).-Military: steam engine warship.1stopium war: 1830s 1840s. British fought Quing China. (British victory because of the use of the warship steam engine. Start blocking the rivers in China: (they cannot transport their foods anymore). British are now growing opium in India and bring it to China for sell.By 1900s, Chinese became addicted to the opium. 1820s, because the colonies became independent, the British cannot offer silver to the Chinese, so replaced it with Opium as a new good to trade (and addictive, create social disaster in China).