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Unformatted text preview: oth Rahim and Jehn (1995) suggest that while task/goal conflict may enhance
performance under certain circumstances, the downsides are the same as for interpersonal
conflicts. Krauss and Morsella (2000) contend that communication is critical in conflict
management and set forth four paradigms for effective communications: encoder-decoder,
intentionalist, perspective-taking, and dialogic.
Intervention is required by the PM to manage conflict, this requires trust (Grisham 2005;
Sullivan et al. 1981; Greenberg 2001; Lewicki and Wiethoff 2000; Kramer and Tyler 1996;
Rousseau et al. 1998), empathy, communications, and power (Coleman 2000; Avruch, K.
1998). When intervening into a conflict the level of each dimension achieved by the leader
will determine the effectiveness and the durability of the solution achieved. Clarke and Lipp
(1998) suggest that conflict resolution be conducted by problem identification and
clarification, cultural and organizational exploration, conflict resolution, and organizational
integration, in addition Oetzel et al. (2001) describe “facework” as a key ingredient in
conflict management. Intervention techniques that can be used have been described by
Burbles and Rice (1991); Gudykunst et al. (1991); Slate (2004); and Levine (1998) that
suggest communicative virtues including tolerance and patience, and rides on trust, respect,
appreciation, and affection.
Intervening in conflict is difficult, Ting-Toomey (2001) suggests that the level of context of
the conflict by each party needs to be understood by the PM, and Gurevitch (2001) describes
the problems associated with the failure to discard preconceived ideas about others and other
cultures. Deutsch (Lewicki and Wiethoff 2000) believes that rapport building; conflict Menu Go Back Next Page resolution (listening, empathy, identifying creative means to resolve disputes, etc.); group
process; and, decision making (leadership, communications, clarifying, summarizing,
integrating, etc) skills are necessary for effective conflict resolution....
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- Winter '14