Basic Pig Biology

Basic Pig Biology - Ba sic Pig Biology S w in e P ig B io...

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10/21/13 Basic Pig Biology animalscience2.ucdavis.edu/ans1/handouts/swine.html 1/3 Swine & Pig Biology A. Population/Census Information World Population Figures (United Nations Food and Agriculture Statistics - ( FAO ) World - 960 Million pigs United States (Agriculture Statistics DataBase - USDA ) US: 65 Million pigs; 57 million marketed; 8 million as breeding animals CA: 255,000 total pigs; 223,000 marketed; 32,000 for breeding B. Basic Biology of Sus Scrofa a) Puberty : 6 months in gilts (5 to 7 months and 150 to 250 lbs); 5-8 months in boars (between 175-250 lbs depending upon breed and season) b) Reproduction : Nonseasonally polyestrus - If not impregnated, sows will cycle in all seasons of the year, however, as the temperature climbs sows are less likely to express the visible signs of estrus (e.g., standing to be mounted, excitable and ‘nervous’ behavior); boars also decline in libido as summer temperatures climb Estrous Cycle - 21 day average (19-23) Estrus Period - lasts 60 hours in sows; 45 hrs in gilts Ovulation - 24-36 hours after onset of estrus; 15-20 eggs shed Gestation - 114 days (3 mo, 3 wks, 3 days); 8-10 pigs born/litter c) Digestive Anatomy : Simple stomached - nonruminants. The pig has a digestive system quite similar to that of humans. Because there is no rumen, the level of roughage in pig diets is low. Pigs also only chew food once (using a full complement of incisors and molars), with physical digestion occurring in the stomach (approximately 2 gallon capacity). Absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine. Typical diets include, principally corn and soybeans,
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Basic Pig Biology - Ba sic Pig Biology S w in e P ig B io...

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