It also offers a sufficiently flexible and open

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Unformatted text preview: ble and open exploration of the phenomenon in its context, and is aimed at discovering insights. Qualitative studies can take the form of interviews, observations and document analysis (archival analysis) or a combination of any of these (Patton, 2001). In this case an archival analysis was chosen because it allowed for an unobstructed exploration of the phenomenon with minimum interference from the researcher (Gray, 2009). It was 42 important in this case that the researcher remain in the background as he is employed by the Competition Commission, and a more prominent role in the research process would have likely led to a response bias. Furthermore, the entry of Wal-Mart into South Africa generated a plethora of documents from which insights into the research questions could be extrapolated, making an archival analysis convenient and desirable. Uusitalo and Rokman (2004), in a similar study in Finland, used the same method. 4.3 Population and Sampling The population for this study are all publicly available documents recording stakeholder management by Wal-Mart / Massmart upon the entry of Wal-Mart into South Africa, as well as publicly available documents recording the views and reactions of stakeholders to the entry. A non-probability and purposeful sampling methods were used in order to select the documents that best provide insights into the phenomenon (Blumberg et al, 2008). The sampling was also opportunistic and convenient because of the availability of documents that were generated for a different purpose to the research (Patton, 2001). The documents used fell into five categories, namely; 1) the Tribunal witness statements of Wal-Mart and Massmart executives, trade union officials, a representative of government and the SMME Forum; 2) the transcript of the Tribunal hearings; 3) the transcripts of parliamentary hearings on the entry of Wal-Mart into South Africa; 4) the print media articles on the entry of Wal-Mart into South Africa; and 5) official press statements released by Wal-Mart, Massmart, government and trade unions on the entry of Wal-Mart into South Africa. 43 4.4 Description of the Documents and Sources 4.4.1 Massmart and Wal-Mart The following documents from Massmart and Wal-Mart were reviewed as part of the sample: • Competition Tribunal witness statements of Grant Pattison and Andy Bond. • Thirteen media releases on the Wal-Mart/Massmart merger and public interest issues. Andy Bond is an executive vice president of Wal-Mart and a former Chairman of ASDA Stores. ASDA is a Wal-Mart subsidiary and the second largest retailer in the UK. ASDA was acquired by Wal-Mart in 1999, at which time it was the third largest retailer in the UK. Bond has held various positions with ASDA since 1994 until being appointed CEO in 2005. Grant Pattison has been the COE of Massmart since 2007, succeeding the founder Mark Lamberti. Pattison has held various positions in the company since he joined in 1998, including the Deputy CEO and Managing Director of various subsidiaries. 4.4.2 Trade Unions The following documents from COSATU and its affiliated trade unions, including those issued jointly with international trade union allies and under the name of the Anti-WalMart Coalition, were reviewed as part of the sample: • Tribunal witness statements of Mduduzi Mbongwe and Etienne Vlok. • Seven media releases, four of which were from COSATU and one each from FAWU, SACTWU, SACCAWU (jointly with Anti-Wal-Mart Coalition). 44 Mduduzi Mbongwe is the Deputy Secretary General of SACCAWU and has held this position since 1999. He has been employed by the union since 1992. SACCAWU is the largest trade union at Massmart and the largest union organising retail workers in South Africa. 4.4.3 Government The following documents from the government forms part of the sample: • Witness statement of Richard Levin, Director General of Economic Development Department. • Three media releases by the Department of Economic Development (EDD), Department of Trade and Industry, and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and a media release by EDD. EDD took a lead position on behalf of government in dealing with this case. Richard Levin is the Director General of the EDD. He is an experienced academic and senior manager in government. Prior to his current position he was the Director General of the Public Service and Administration Department. The Minister of Economic Development, Ibrahim Patel, is a former long-serving Secretary General of SACTWU and a leader of COSATU. 4.4.4 Competition Tribunal The following documents from the Tribunal form part of the sample: • Tribunal Order • Statement of the Tribunal on the release of its decision • Reasons for the Tribunal Decision 45 • Transcript of the Tribunal hearing. The Tribunal panel that held the merger was constituted by Norman Manoim (presiding), Yasmin Carrim and Andreas Wessels. All three are full time members of the Tribunal. Manoim and Carrim are both lawyers...
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