H ow fur do you travel to shop for clothes h ow a

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Unformatted text preview: or each good can be mapped and compared, providing an indication o f the market area ror a particular item. W here the range is greater than the threshold there is an opportunity for sellers to generate a profit. the range will be Christaller recognized that i n affected by population density and, as in Thlinen's model, by transport roures such t hat the boundaries o f the range might be extended o r c ontracted around the central place a nd m ight n ot be organized exactly as a c oncentric ring around the central place. The range will also be affected by the presence o f o ther central places for, unlike in ThUnen's o r W eber's models, Christaller was concerned with soatial patterns in a region witb more than one central O f m arket. Also, unlike i n p revious IDeational theories, Christaller's central places are centers serving, e 0 rather than being served by, their rural hinterland a nd s urrounding lower order central places. I n considering central places along with their market areas Christaller developed a geometric model. Instead o f t he circles o f "IhUnen o r t he triangles o r Weber, Christaller's geometry was one o f polygons. Specifically, be modeled an orderly and exhaustive hierarchy o f central places with their complementary regions organized in hexagonal form. 'The e nthusiasm with which economic geographers o f the 19505 and 1960s embraced the clear, repetitive, hier­ archical order, represented by the bexagons o f central theolY Figure 2.9) was, arguably, the classic expression o f the aesthetics o f t he o rdering impulse o f e conomic geography (as w e examine further i n C hapter 3). I n 1 962 economic geographer William Bunge wrote that he found a 'growing beauty' in central place theory (1962: 129). The simplest variant o f central place theory was based o n a ' marketing principle' and is sometimes referred to as the K- 3 model (Box 2.2). K rders to tbe number o f central o f a certain order that are served by a central place a t t he n ext higher order. I n t his highly structured hierarchical urban system there is o ne central place arop the hierarcby, with three central places o f t he next order, followed by nine, 27, 81 a nd so on, down through the G-p/ace B-p/ace <:> K-p/ace 0 A-place ..... /' /' ..... M-p/ace Boundary of the G-region Boundary of the B-region Boundary o f the K-region Boundary o f the A-region Boundary of the M-region Figure 2 .9 A system o f central places Source: based on Chris taller 1966: 66. 27 26 TRADITIONAL LOCATION THEORY TRADITIONAL ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHIES W eber's ideas about industrial location have had a significant influence o n scholarship in economics, eco­ nomic geography and regional science. Since his time, the distribution o f industry has changed profoundly, I t is q uite likely that the manufactured items your grand­ parents and parents grew up with came from different places than those associated with the products that you buy and use. For example, the shift o f US T -shirt manu­ from the US South to the Caribbean and Central America in the 1980s and then t o Asia more recently is a reflection o f the industry's h unt for low labor costs, although other factors such as trade agreements have also been at work. I he rise o f China as a global manufacturing is also based o n the logic o f low costs o f production outweighing transport costs - a classic Weberian scenario. Weber's influence is also felt in the policy domain, local, regional a nd even national development plans have centered o n attracting industry by offering lower costs. So, for example, many locations in poorer countries, such as tbe free trade w nes in Asia o r Central America, compete ror manufacturing plants based o n low costs - especially o f labor (Box 2.1). O ther locations may attempt to attract energy intensive industry by offering comparatively low electricity costs, for example; o r an industrial park next t o a major highway can boast o f offering reduced transport costs, 1hese strategies, based o n offering lower costs t o as a Iocational 'pull,' reflect the fundamental insights o f Weber. '1 hey stand in stark contrast t o alterna­ tive development strategies based o n n urturing local entrepreneurs for example, o r building up certain skill sets and upgrading the local labor pool. As we demonstrate in 7 there is a veritable array o f development that can be tracked to quite different conceptions o f the way that economic geographies are produced and structured. I n Weber's case the low costs provide the key stimulus. WALTER CHRISTALLER W alter Christ aller's ( 1893-1669) book, Central Places in Southenl Germany was published in 1933, the year Hitler's National Sot (N;uJ) Party was elected to power. I n it Chris taller laid o ut his theOlY o f t he distribution o f settlements (towns and villages), known as central Christaller himself joined t he Nazi Parry in 1940 a nd found a position working in the Planning Office directed by Himmler. In this job, Chris taller applied his central place theOlY t o the formulation o f urban o f the countries that Germany had invaded. H e drew up ela...
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This document was uploaded on 01/24/2014.

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