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8 mar 13 mar 15 532 124 131 18 11 816 10 10000 2000 2

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Unformatted text preview: ear USA Energy Use/year 19 20 21 Mar. 8 Mar. 13 Mar. 15 53.2 12.4 13.1 1.8 1.1 _____________ 81.6 10 >10,000 2,000 2 x 107 8 x 109 0.26 0.08 Mar. 15 Construct a table showing the similarities and the differences in the Engineered Safety Features (ESFs) for the reactor concepts: 1. Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). 2. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Mar. 29 Assuming that heat rejection occurs at an ambient temperature of 20 degrees Celsius, for the average heat addition temperatures Ta given below, compare the Carnot cycle thermal efficiencies of the following reactor concepts: 1. PWR, 168 oC. 2. BWR, 164 oC. 3. CANDU, 141 oC. 4. HTGR, 205 oC. 5. LMFBR, 215 oC. Mar. 29 A boiling water reactor produces saturated steam at 1,000 psia. The steam passes through a turbine and is exhausted at 1 psia. The steam is condensed to a subcooling of 3 oF and then pumped back to the reactor pressure. Compute the following parameters: 1. Net work per pound of fluid in [BTU/lbm]. 2. Heat rejected per pound of fluid. 3. Heat added by the reactor per pound of fluid. 4. The turbine heat rate defined as: [(Heat rejected +Net turbine work)/Net turbine work] in units of [BTU/(kW.hr)] 3. Overall Thermal efficiency. You may use the following data: From the ASME Steam Tables, saturated steam at 1,000 psia has an enthalpy of h=1192.9 [BTU/lbm] At 1 psia pressure the fluid enthalpy from an isentropic expansion is 776 [BTU/lbm] The isentropic pumping work is 2.96 [BTU/lbm] The enthalpy of the liquid at 1 psia subcooled to 3 oF is 66.73 [BTU/lbm] 1 [kW.hr] = 3412 [BTU] 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Mar. 17 Mar. 27 Mar. 31 Apr. 3 Apr. 5 Apr. 7 Apr. 10 Mar. 29 In the preceding problem calculate the quantities of interest for a practical cycle with a turbine efficiency of 80 percent and a pump efficiency of 80 percent. Apr. 3 Compare the amplification in the fissile inventory in: a) A converter PWR or BWR reactor with a conversion ratio C=0.55. b) An advanced converter such as the CANDU concept with C=0.90. Apr. 5 Write a 1-2 pages summary of the article: Charles Petit, “Nuclear Power Risking a Comeback. It’s Scary. It’s Expensive. It could save the Earth.” National Geographic, Vol. 209, No. 4, pp. 54-63, April 2006. Express your own opinions about the discussed issues. Apr.10 An executive at an electrical utility company needs to order uranium fuel from a mine. The utility operates a single 1000 MWe power plant of the CANDU type using natural uranium, and operating at an overall thermal efficiency of 33 percent. What is the yearly amount of: 1. U235 burned up by the reactor? 2. U235 consumed by the reactor? 3. Natural uranium that the executive has to contract with the mine as feed t...
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