How to Survive at the University of Iowa
1. Emotions are reactions consisting of psychological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Emotions
occur unconsciously, meaning you don’t have to tell yourself what emotion you want to experience; it just happens.
Two famous psychologists, Schacter and Smith, concluded that emotions have two parts, also known as the Two
Factor Theory of Emotion. An emotion requires both an environmental or situational cue, as well as a physiological
arousal. You will experience an emotion, such as fear, when you feel your heart rate increase and when you see
someone chasing after you. Both factors contribute to the emotion.
It is believed that some emotions are universal,
meaning certain emotions are expressed in the same way throughout all cultures. The six emotions that are
considered to be universal are anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and disgust. These emotions are linked with
common facial expressions and bodily reactions. At the University of Iowa, happiness is expressed through smiles,
laughter and cheer. Since happiness is universal, all cultures express happiness in similar ways. It is very easy to see
if someone is happy, no matter what part of the world you live in. All you have to do is notice someone’s smile.
Unlike emotions, feelings occur in the conscious mind. Feelings are conscious subjective experiences that
result from a certain emotion. After you experience an emotion, you will reflect on it and decide how you feel.
Ultimately, feelings describe emotions. For example, if you experienced the emotion fear, you would say that you
felt scared or afraid. Since feelings are subjective, they cannot be universal like some emotions can. You may feel
scared when experiencing fear, whereas someone in a different culture may feel empowered or adventurous. There
are many different feelings for certain emotions. For example, happiness is linked with feelings of joy and content.
At the University of Iowa, happiness is also linked with feelings of freedom, relief, energy, and ease. When students
are happy, they feel like they can let loose and enjoy life. Their feelings are expressed through their behavior and
interactions with others. The way someone might feel depends on who they are and the situation they’re in. Being
happy in a social setting produces a different feeling than being happy in class.
There are two types of emotions, primary and secondary.
Primary emotions are physiologically inherited.
We are born with these emotions and will experience them no matter whom we are or where we live. Expressing