Anth205-Study Guide for Exam 1

Anth205-Study Guide for Exam 1 - ANTH 205 Study Guide for...

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ANTH 205 Study Guide for Test 1 Four subfields of Anthropology: Archeology Biological Linguistic Cultural Defining elements of Culture: Learned and shared Established system for social interaction Provide extra genetic behavioral solutions to common challenges Major Anthropological Theories Social Evolution: importance of evolution in organizing information about different people Historical Particularism: emphasized the importance of history and of particular details of life Structural Functionalism: emphasized that societies were indeed structured and different elements had practical function Definition of Evolution: Changes through time of the frequency of particular genetic variants Four Mechanisms of Evolution: Mutation Gene flow Genetic drift Natural selection Three points to Theory of Natural Selection: There exists variation in the population. This variation is heritable. Some traits will allow individuals to be more successful reproducers than others, and these traits are passed on in greater numbers to subsequent generations. Four pieces of evidence for Common Ancestry Transitional/missing link fossils Homology Genetic similarity Embryology Naturalistic Fallacy : dismiss what is at odd with the norm Cultural relativism: behaviors, beliefs, and customs within the context of the particular culture on their terms, not ours Ethnocentrism: judging another culture by values and standards of own’ culture Moral relativism: judgment of moral values based on the particular cultural, historical and social context in which they are formed. There exists no higher universal moral truth Female circumcision: largely perform by women, save til’ marriage, strong tie to chastity Epistemological relativism: All means of learning involve subjective biases. The ‘objective’ truth is unobtainable. No way of “knowing” is better than another. Cultural examples that caused Henry Bagish to question the value of relativism Dani believe in ghosts, and that the ghosts of people slain in war or ambush must be avenged-because unavenged ghosts bring sickness, unhappiness and disaster. So there were constant battles back and forth trying to ‘avenge’ the dead Nuer children dying of smallpox, their faces and bodies covered with the eruptions and lesions of the disease . The Nuer hold a special ceremony, asking the gods to relieve them of this scourge. They dance, they fire precious bullets into the air, they sacrifice goats to the goddess of the river.
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Biological definitions of race: taxonomic level below species, synonymous with subspecies Major reasons humans can’t be divided into races
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