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o amnesics exhibit cognitive dissonance reduction?

10 p 3 and t10 012 p 3 respectively explicit memory

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Unformatted text preview: bsence of choice. As shown in Table 2, amnesic patients and control participants showed no significant attitude change in the noncritical set, t(9) 0.10, p .3, and t(10) 0.12, p .3, respectively. Explicit memory All participants had great difficulty identifying the 4 critical prints from the set of 15. Both amnesic patients (25% correct) and control participants (33% correct) performed at or near the level of accuracy expected by chance alone (27%). Not surprisingly, these low levels of performance did not differ significantly between the two groups, t(21) 0.86, p .2, r .25. The poor performance is probably attributable to the requirement that participants remember when or how often during the experiment they had encountered the critical pairs. Remembering such contextual information constitutes a type of source memory judgment, which is impaired in both amnesic patients (e.g., Schacter, Harbluk, & McLachlan, 1984) and elderly adults (e.g., Schacter, Osowiecki, Kaszniak, Kihlstrom, & Valdiserri, 1994). Our control group consisted of primarily elderly adults. More important, however, amnesic patients and control participants did differ with regard to their memory for which critical prints were chosen and which were rejected, a type of memory that specifically references the counterattitudinal behavior. Of the cards correctly identified as critical prints, the age-matched control participants categorized nearly all of the prints correctly as chosen or rejected (91%), and outperformed amnesic patients (44%), t(21) 3.00, p .02, r .67, who performed at chance (50%). In short, control participants remembered their counterattitudinal behavior, whereas amnesics did not, but the two groups showed identical amounts of attitude change. Results and Discussion Attitude change Table 2. Attitude change (change in rank) in Experiment 1 The age-matched control participants showed the typical behaviorinduced attitude change. That is, there was a greater difference between the mean ranks of the selected and rejected pairs in Phase 3 than in Phase 1, t(10) 3.07, p .02, r .68.1 Amnesic patients also showed attitude change, t(9) 2.52, p .03, r .62. Table 2 shows 1. The amnesic patients and elderly control participants in Experiment 1 chose the 4-10 pair 64% of the time. Gerard and White (1983) reported that 75% of their participants chose the higher-ranked pair in a choice that was objectively easier than the one we used. The difference between their result and ours is nonsignificant, 2(1) 0.99, p .3, one-tailed. Gerard and White also reported that eliminating the data of those participants who selected the lowerranked pair did not change their results. Given the constraints on our sample size, we chose to include data from participants who selected the lower-ranked pair. In Experiment 2, participants chose the 4-10 pair more than 75% of the time. Pair Amnesic participants Control participants Choice prints Selected pair Rejected pair Spread (selected Selected pair Rejected pair Spread (s...
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