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Unformatted text preview: from single-letter cues. While they
performed the ﬁller task, the experimenter removed two pairs of prints
from the critical set. These were designated as the critical pairs. One
consisted of the 4th- and 10th-ranked prints (referred to as the 4-10
pair), and the other consisted of the 6th- and 12th-ranked prints (referred to as the 6-12 pair). Thus, each critical pair was composed of a
relatively liked and a relatively disliked print.
After 3 min of the ﬁller task, the second phase of the study began.
Participants were told that they were now going to complete another
aesthetic task, and this time they were going to indicate which of two
pairs of art prints they would prefer to hang in their home if they could
have full-size reproductions of that pair to take with them. Participants
made six such choices, ﬁve involving novel pairs of prints and one involving the critical pairs. For each choice, two pairs of prints were
placed on the table in front of the participant, with one pair on the left
and one pair on the right. The participant pointed to the pair that he or
she preferred. This pair was designated the selected pair, and the other
pair was designated the rejected pair. As soon as a choice was made,
the next pairs of prints were placed before the participant. The pairs of
prints used for the participant’s fourth choice were the two critical
pairs. The sides of the table on which the 4-10 pair and 6-12 pair were
placed were counterbalanced across participants.
The third phase began after participants completed another iteration of the city-generation task, with a slightly different instruction to
generate only the names of foreign cities. Phase 3 was similar to Phase
1, with a minor change in instructions. Participants were told that preferences can sometimes ﬂuctuate over time, and that they were to rank
each set of prints again, in order of their preference, but that they
should do so according to how they felt about them “right now.” It was
emphasized that this was not a memory test, and that they need not try
to recollect how they had ranked the items initially. The critical set
was always presented second.
The fourth phase began immediately upon completion of Phase 3.
Participants were shown the 15 prints from the critical set (either the
Monet set or the Aboriginal set) and asked to identify the 4 prints that
had appeared in Phase 2. As a test of memory for their choice, participants were also asked to indicate which pair they had selected and
which pair they had rejected during Phase 2. the average change in rank for the two groups, as well as the spread
(increase in rank for the selected prints minus decrease in rank for the
rejected prints). A comparison of the attitude change shown by the
amnesic patients and age-matched control participants revealed no difference, t(21)
.3. Participants also ranked and reranked
another set of prints for which no choices were made. Prints with initial ranks equivalent to the ranks of the selected and rejected prints
from the critical set provided baseline levels of attitude change in the
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- Fall '13
- Cognitive Dissonance