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o amnesics exhibit cognitive dissonance reduction?

o amnesics exhibit cognitive dissonance reduction? -...

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http://pss.sagepub.com/ Psychological Science http://pss.sagepub.com/content/12/2/135 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.1111/1467-9280.00323 2001 12: 135 Psychological Science Matthew D. Lieberman, Kevin N. Ochsner, Daniel T. Gilbert and Daniel L. Schacter Attitude Change Do Amnesics Exhibit Cognitive Dissonance Reduction? The Role of Explicit Memory and Attention in Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Association for Psychological Science can be found at: Psychological Science Additional services and information for http://pss.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts: http://pss.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: What is This? - Mar 1, 2001 Version of Record >> at COLUMBIA UNIV on April 18, 2013 pss.sagepub.com Downloaded from
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PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Research Article VOL. 12, NO. 2, MARCH 2001 Copyright © 2001 American Psychological Society 135 DO AMNESICS EXHIBIT COGNITIVE DISSONANCE REDUCTION? The Role of Explicit Memory and Attention in Attitude Change Matthew D. Lieberman, Kevin N. Ochsner, Daniel T. Gilbert, and Daniel L. Schacter Harvard University Abstract— In two studies, we investigated the roles of explicit mem- ory and attentional resources in the process of behavior-induced atti- tude change. Although most theories of attitude change (cognitive dissonance and self-perception theories) assume an important role for both mechanisms, we propose that behavior-induced attitude change can be a relatively automatic process that does not require explicit memory for, or consciously controlled processing of, the discrepancy between attitude and behavior. Using a free-choice paradigm, we found that both amnesics and normal participants under cognitive load showed as much attitude change as did control participants. A fox saw some ripe black grapes hanging from a trellised vine. He resorted to all his tricks to get at them, but wearied himself in vain, for he could not reach them. At last he turned away, hiding his disappointment and saying: “The grapes are sour, and not ripe as I thought.” —Aesop (trans. 1961, p. 100) When a person responds to disappointments in the same fashion as Aesop’s fox, revising his or her attitudes to fit with the current circum- stances, other people may doubt the sincerity of the person’s new be- liefs and may be tempted to think of this change as rationalization or self-deception. If the grapes were suddenly available, the fox might not pass over them for being sour. The research we report here, how- ever, suggests that such conventional wisdom may be wrong, that the grapes may indeed continue to be unappealing even if the memory that they were once unobtainable is completely removed. In this article, we present two experiments suggesting that the incongruency between one’s attitudes and behaviors can automatically result in real changes in those attitudes. Such behavior-induced attitude changes may re- quire minimal conscious effort and may endure without memory for the behavior that induced them.
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