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Unformatted text preview: Related Reac tions to Gratuitous Sex Appeals in Advertis ing,” J ournal
of Cons umer Ps yc hology 18, no. 1 (2008), pp. 62–78. 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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Content Chapte r18: Adv e rtising, Public Re lations, and Sale s Prom otions Step 5. Evaluate and Select Media
T he content of an advertisement is tied closely to the characteristics of the media that firms select to
carry the message, and vice versa. M e d ia p lan n in g refers to the process of evaluating and
selecting the me d ia mix—the combination of the media used and the frequency of advertising in
each medium—that will deliver a clear, consistent, compelling message to the intended audience.29
F or example, Macy's may determine that a heavy dose of television, radio, print, and billboards is
appropriate for the holiday selling season between T hanksgiving and the end of the year.
Because the me d ia b u y, the actual purchase of airtime or print pages, is generally the largest
expense in the advertising budget, marketers must make their decisions carefully. T elevision
advertising is by far the most expensive. T otal U.S. advertising expenditures per medium have
remained roughly constant for some time, though some shifts are currently taking place. F or
example, whereas television advertising is consistent at approximately 44 percent, digital advertising
is now 17 percent. Spanish-language media also are growing by more than 14 percent per year,
whereas newspaper advertising is losing almost an entire percentage point.30 T o characterize these
various types of media, we use a dichotomy: mass and niche media.
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