Advanced Plate Tectonics

Oce 661 continental drift introduced in two articles

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Unformatted text preview: together, then later separated. OCE 661 • Continental Drift - introduced in two articles published by a German meteorologist named Alfred Wegener. The origin of continents and oceans (1915) First person to present evidence other than continental margin fit • 200 m.y. ago, the supercontinent Pangaea (all Earth) began to split apart. OCE 661 Evidence for continental drift: • Geological evidence: 1) fold belts 2) age provinces 3) igneous provinces 4) stratigraphic sections 5) metallogenic provinces OCE 661 OCE 661 OCE 661 Paleontological evidence 1) distribution of tetrapods-early distrib->easy communication in Pangaea 2) early Permian reptile Mesosaurus-found in S Africa and Brazil 3) marine invertebrates-distrib of cont and oceans different from today 4) Cambrian trilobites 5) ammonites (shallow seas between India, Madagascar and Africa in J) 6) Glossopteris and Gangamopteris fauna in Gondwana (cold climate), tropical flora in Laurasia 7) diversity of species (increases towards Eq=>drifting N-S controls the diversity) OCE 661 Fauna in Pangaea-similar climates Geographical proximity of fossil fauna in reconstructed Pangaea: -Mesosaurus, Lystrosaurus, Cynognathus (lizards) O -Glossopteris (seed fern) CE 661 OCE 661 • Paleoclimatic evidence: Some lithologies are indicative of particular climates and hence global position 1) carbonates and reef deposits-warm water, 30deg from eq 2) evaporates-hot, arid conditions 3) red beds-hot climate for form of hematite...
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