Advanced Plate Tectonics

Oce 661 ocean floor mapping about two thirds of the

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Unformatted text preview: oncentrated along oceanic trenches and submarine mountain ranges. OCE 661 Ocean floor mapping About two thirds of the Earth's surface lies beneath the oceans. • Before the 19th century, the depths of the open ocean were largely a matter of speculation, and most people thought that the ocean floor was relatively flat and featureless. • 19th century: deep-sea line soundings (bathymetric surveys) in the Atlantic and Caribbean. • 1855, a bathymetric chart published by U.S. Navy Lieutenant Matthew Maury revealed the first evidence of underwater mountains in the central Atlantic (which he called "Middle Ground"). OCE 661 • later confirmed by survey ships laying the trans-Atlantic telegraph cable. • after World War I (1914-18): echo-sounding devices began to measure ocean depth by recording the time it took for a sound signal from the ship to bounce off the ocean floor and return. –> ocean floor is much more rugged than previously thought. –> demonstrated the continuity and roughness of the submarine mountain chain in the central Atlanti...
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