Everytimeaballbouncesitlosesenergythisenergyisgiventot

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Unformatted text preview: essure
is
less
than
P.
 A
mass
falls
from
a
high
altitude
to
a
low
altitude.
 Conversely,
the
following
processes
are
not
spontaneous
and
will
take
 place
only
if
work
is
done
by
the
surroundings
on
the
system.

Cooling
an
 object
below
ambient
temperature,
electrolysis
of
water
to
yield
O2
and
H2,
 compressing
a
gas
to
a
smaller
volume.

In
a
philosophical
sense,
the
 second
law
tells
us
about
the
direction
of
time.
Any
real
system
has
two
 choices,
either
it
evolves
spontaneously
in
one
direction
(in
which
case,
it
 cannot
evolve
spontaneously
in
the
opposite
direction),
or
it
is
at
 equilibrium
(in
which
case,
it
does
not
evolve
at
all).
Note
that
all
living
 systems
evolve
in
some
fashion.
 The
basic
observation
at
the
origin
of
the
second
law
is
that
a
spontaneous
 process
is
always
accompanied
by
a
dispersal
of
energy
in
a
more
 disordered
form.


 Marand’s
Notes:
Chapter
3
‐
The
Second
Law
of
Thermodynamics
 95
 To
visualize
this
statement,
consider
the
process
of
friction
(an
ever‐ present
nuisance,
which
prevents
perpetual
motion).
 Every
time
a
ball
bounces,
it
loses
energy.
This
energy
is
given
to
the
 ground
in
the
form
of
heat,
which
leads
to
increased
motion
of
the
atoms
 and
molecules
in
the
ground.
Heat
is
transferred
to
the
ground
because
of
 the
friction
during
the
impact.
There
is
a
decrease
in
the
organized
motion
 of
the
ball
(bouncing
of
the
ball,
where
all
atoms
and
molecules
move
down
 and
up
in
unison)and
an
increase
in
the
disorganized
motion
of
the
 molecules
in
the
ground...
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2014 for the course CHEM 3615 taught by Professor Aresker during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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