Thenwecanintegratedsto obtain sht

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Unformatted text preview: ∫ Note
that
this
definition
of
entropy
is
apparently
justified
by
the
fact
that
 € whether
work
is
done
on
the
system
or
done
by
the
system,
it
does
not
 affect
the
amount
of
disorder
in
the
system.
Disorder
is
generated
by
heat
 Marand’s
Notes:
Chapter
3
‐
The
Second
Law
of
Thermodynamics
 97
 (as
heat
is
supplied
to
the
system
or
the
surroundings,
the
system
or
the
 surroundings
become
more
disordered).
Think
about
increased
molecular
 motion
with
increasing
temperature.
Also,
the
greatest
amount
of
disorder
 is
generated
when
a
given
amount
of
heat
is
supplied
at
lower
 temperature,
since
at
lower
temperature,
systems
are
generally
more
 ordered.

Note
also
that
δq
by
itself
is
not
the
change
in
a
State
Function
 but
δq
/
T
is.
[To
gain
a
better
understanding
of
the
meaning
of
“dispersal
 of
energy
in
a
more
disordered
form”
requires
concepts
typically
covered
in
 quantum
chemistry
and
statistical
thermodynamics].
 The
second
law
of
thermodynamics
is
generally
stated
as
follows:

A
 process
is
spontaneous
if
Δ S
+
Δ Ssurr
>
0
(that
is
Δ SUniverse
>
0
 Conversely,
if
the
total
change
in
entropy
for
the
Universe
during
a
 hypothetical
process
is
negative
(ΔSUniverse

=
ΔS
+
ΔSsurr
<
0),
then
this
 process
cannot
take
place
spontaneously,
but
the
reverse
process
would.

 Finally,
if
a
process
is
characterized
by
ΔSUniverse
=
0,
then
the
system
is
 either
at
equilibrium
or
is
undergoing
a
reversible
process.
 The
change
in
entropy
of
the
surroundings
is
always
calculated
from:
 ΔSsurr = € ∫ δqsurr qsurr −q 
 = = Tsurr Tsurr Tsurr Marand’s
Notes:
Chapter
3...
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